The future forecast of lead-acid batteries and lithium batteries!

by:CTECHi     2021-07-20

Lead-acid battery: It is the most popular chemical power source, but it does not mean that this battery has any advantages. There are two reasons for the large number of vehicles. Firstly, only two-wheeled three-wheeled electric vehicles use this kind of battery. Secondly, there are some sightseeing vehicles that have been mistakenly identified as 'old scooters.' The common feature of these vehicles is that the price is low enough that most people can afford to buy one for transportation. The size of the user market is large enough to be the basis for this battery's hot sales.

Key point: The service life of lead-acid batteries is very short. The average number of complete charging and discharging times is only about 350 times and they will be scrapped; high-frequency replacement also accelerates the production and sales of batteries. So does the sales show any advantages of this battery?

01

Core disadvantages

1: Lead-acid battery The chemical reaction method is not ideal, and its plates will be immersed in the electrolyte (sulfuric acid solution). The lead element of the positive and negative electrodes can react with lead dioxide and sulfuric acid solution. During the charging process, the grid current is used to promote the reaction. At this time, the [lead sulfate] of the electrode plate is decomposed, and the concentration of the electrolyte will gradually increase during the process.

After the charge is completed, the discharge can begin, but during the discharge process, it only reacts in the reverse direction, and a current is generated during the reaction process.

But at the same time, it will also produce lead sulfate crystals with high hardness. Some of this substance is difficult to be reduced during the charging process. This state is called plate vulcanization; Severe vulcanization will affect the reaction efficiency of the active material of the electrode plate. The increase of the discharge capacity and the decrease of the active material, as well as the decrease of the electrolyte concentration will always affect the charge and discharge efficiency.

Each charge will cause the plate vulcanization and electrolyte ratio to be out of balance, and the total cycle base is very low, so this kind of battery will always be eliminated by high frequency.

2: Lead-acid batteries do not have the value of 'cascade utilization'. After the battery is scrapped, the casing can only be disassembled to re-extract the lead element, but because the control of this battery is difficult to be very strict, there are many irregular small workshops that use waste batteries to smelt lead; at the same time, it will produce quite serious lead sulfate and lead emissions. Pollution, this has caused serious problems.

The so-called cascade utilization means that after the battery is scrapped, it is sent to the electric power or communication field as an energy storage battery for continued use; however, the lead-acid battery scrap is a complete scrap, but the lithium battery is used by the car. After being eliminated, it will basically not be scrapped.

02

Li·Two types

NCM nickel Cobalt manganese

LFP lithium iron phosphate

At this stage, the mainstream battery is NCM, which is characterized by its manufacturing cost Very high, the service life is quite satisfactory, and the safety level is quite satisfactory. Compared with lead-acid batteries, the main advantage is the high energy density, the standard is about 5 times that of batteries; that is to say, the achievable cruising range of the same weight of lithium batteries will increase by multiple levels.

However, this kind of battery requires very high packaging technology and electronic control system, which will cause a substantial increase in vehicle manufacturing costs, so ordinary electric vehicles are still difficult to popularize.

NCM nickel cobalt manganese LFP lithium iron phosphate battery is currently the mainstream battery is NCM, this kind of battery is characterized by very high manufacturing cost, moderate service life, moderate safety level. Compared with lead-acid batteries, the main advantage is the high energy density, the standard is about 5 times that of batteries; that is to say, the achievable cruising range of the same weight of lithium batteries will increase by multiple levels.

However, this kind of battery requires very high packaging technology and electronic control system, which will cause a substantial increase in vehicle manufacturing costs, so ordinary electric vehicles are still difficult to popularize.

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