Ternary lithium PK lithium iron phosphate, who is the ultimate winner of power lithium batteries

by:CTECHi     2021-09-06
Introduction: Once upon a time, the new energy market was full of pure electric vehicles using lithium iron phosphate batteries. With the development of technology and consumer demand for battery life, ternary lithium-ion batteries with better low-temperature performance and higher energy density gradually Replace lithium iron phosphate battery. However, two pieces of news in recent times have been heated up. One is that the domestic Tesla Model 3 uses lithium iron phosphate batteries, and the other is that BYDhan uses blade batteries (lithium iron phosphate batteries). The two hottest domestic electric vehicle manufacturers re-adopted lithium iron phosphate batteries, which seems to give people a feeling of 'returning' lithium iron phosphate. Let's take a look at the ternary lithium ion batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries. Where is the difference in batteries. Lithium iron phosphate and ternary lithium are geometrically different from the degree of stability of chemical elements. Lithium iron phosphate batteries do have more stable chemical characteristics than ternary lithium-ion batteries, and the manufacturing cost is at least 20% lower than that of ternary lithium-ion batteries. . However, its low-temperature performance and energy density are not as good as ternary lithium-ion batteries. Under the same battery capacity, lithium iron phosphate batteries will take up more volume and weight, and battery life and interior space will be affected. The biggest advantage of ternary lithium-ion batteries is the high energy density of single cells. With the same battery volume, higher battery capacity can be achieved, and the strong low-temperature resistance is also unattainable by lithium iron phosphate batteries. . At the same time, through material modification optimization, surface material coating and other equipment protection assistance, safety can also be guaranteed. Although it will increase a certain cost compared to lithium iron phosphate batteries, the intuitive increase in battery life and the reduction of user mileage anxiety make ternary lithium-ion batteries the first choice for major car companies to develop electric vehicles. According to the data released by the my country Automotive Power Lithium-ion Battery Industry Innovation Alliance in April 2020, the domestic installed capacity of ternary lithium-ion batteries is about 2.6GWh, accounting for 73.2%, and the installed capacity of lithium iron phosphate batteries is 0.9GWh, accounting for The ratio is only 25.8%. Several models with excellent driving range on the market all use ternary lithium-ion batteries, Beijing Hyundai Oncino pure electric, Beijing Hyundai Festa pure electric, GAC New Energy AionS, BYD Tang EV, and the range of several vehicles is all Around 500km. In addition, ternary lithium-ion batteries have lower attenuation under low temperature conditions in winter. Most ternary lithium-ion batteries have a low-temperature attenuation rate of about 15%, and the low-temperature attenuation rate of lithium phosphate batteries can even reach as high as 50%. Are ternary lithium-ion batteries really unsafe? The previous article talked about the advantages of ternary lithium-ion batteries, and some people will question its safety. Its biggest safety hazard is nothing more than high-temperature fires and external force extrusion fires, so I have to talk about ternary lithium The 'fireproof' technology of ion batteries is now available. First of all, ternary lithium-ion batteries are also divided into NCA (nickel cobalt aluminum) and NCM (nickel cobalt manganese). In the past few years, most of the spontaneous combustion incidents of Tesla Model S appeared on models equipped with NCA ternary lithium-ion batteries, and most of them were Products produced from 2012 to 2016. The Angsino pure electric and Festa pure electric models mentioned above all use NCM ternary lithium-ion batteries from the Ningde era. In terms of chemical stability, NCM batteries are higher than NCA batteries. In addition to battery cell materials, ternary lithium-ion batteries also need to provide comprehensive protection to the battery cells. Take Beijing Hyundai's dual-EV vehicle as an example. Beijing Hyundai has more stringent three-electric safety standards, which have been carried out in the early stage of product development. Repeatedly squeezed, dropped, burned, immersed and other battery limit tests to ensure that the battery does not catch fire or explode under extreme conditions and ensure driving safety. In addition, Beijing Hyundai's high-efficiency temperature control system can ensure that the operating temperature of the power lithium-ion battery is between 25 and 45 °C through real-time temperature monitoring, liquid cooling control loops, PTC resistance wires, and thermostats to maintain optimal working efficiency at all times And to extend the battery cycle life, the temperature difference of the single cell can be accurately controlled within 5°C. If an individual battery cell fails during charging and causes local overheating, the temperature monitoring sensor will also inform the EV core system as soon as possible, and cut off the power supply in time through the fuse protection design to prevent the battery from heating up quickly and ensure the battery and vehicle safety. The integrated design of the high-voltage wiring module also reduces the soft line connections, prevents potential safety hazards due to line aging, and improves line safety. Not only that, Beijing Hyundai has also improved and optimized the body of a pure electric vehicle. Without affecting the safety of the occupants in the car, the upper and lower beam connection structure is adopted, and the energy absorption equivalent during impact is added to ensure the maximum power. Lithium-ion batteries are not squeezed by external forces. On this basis, Beijing Hyundai’s power lithium-ion battery also has a ceramic diaphragm coating process. This process uses the excellent temperature insulation performance of ceramic particles to effectively prevent large-area short circuits caused by accidental battery out-of-control points, which minimizes The battery may catch fire due to a short circuit. It can be seen that the safety technology of ternary lithium-ion batteries is now very mature. Under heavy protection, as long as the temperature of the battery core does not exceed the standard, there will be no safety issues that people questioned. Written at the end: As far as the moment is concerned, lithium iron phosphate batteries can indeed make the manufacturing cost of vehicles lower and make consumers more secure, but the energy density and low temperature resistance of the batteries are difficult to match the ternary lithium ion Battery. The charging speed and endurance of ternary lithium-ion batteries are more in line with today’s consumers’ car habits. In addition to the reliability and continuous innovation provided by battery safety technology, lithium iron phosphate batteries want to surpass ternary lithium-ion batteries. Batteries also need technological breakthroughs and market washing.
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