Overview of the development of lithium titanate battery technology and its advantages and disadvantages

by:CTECHi     2021-08-28
Do you know the general situation of the development of lithium titanate battery technology and its advantages and disadvantages? In today's highly developed science and technology, a variety of high-tech appear in our lives, bringing convenience to our lives, So do you know the lithium titanate battery points that these high-tech may contain? Lithium titanate batteries have a unique spinel structure of three-dimensional lithium ion diffusion channels, with excellent power characteristics and good high and low temperature performance. Compared with carbon anode materials, lithium titanate has a higher potential, which results in a solid-liquid layer (SEI) that usually grows on the surface of the electrolyte, while substantially no carbon anode is formed on the surface of the lithium titanate. More importantly, it is difficult to generate lithium dendrites on the surface of lithium titanate within the voltage range used by ordinary batteries. This largely eliminates the possibility of short circuits formed by lithium dendrites inside the battery. Lithium titanate battery has the advantages of small size, light weight, high energy density, good sealing performance, no leakage, no memory effect, low self-discharge rate, fast charge and discharge, long cycle life, wide working environment temperature range, and safety. And the characteristics of stable green and environmental protection, so it has a very broad application prospect in the field of communication power supply. When lithium titanate is used as an anode material, the potential platform is as high as 1.55V, which is more than 1V higher than traditional graphite anode materials. Although some energy density is lost, it also means that the battery is safer. Technical expert Lu Languang once said that when the battery is charged quickly, the negative electrode voltage requirement is relatively low, but if it is too low, the lithium-ion battery will easily precipitate very active metallic lithium. The lithium ions not only conduct electricity, but also react with the electrolyte. Then it releases heat, and flammable gas appears, causing a fire. The higher 1V voltage of lithium titanate can prevent the negative electrode voltage from being zero, thereby indirectly preventing the precipitation of lithium ions, thereby ensuring the safety of the battery. Therefore, the safety of lithium-ion batteries with lithium titanate as the negative electrode is the highest among all types of lithium-ion batteries that I have seen so far. In the past 10 years, domestic and foreign research on lithium titanate battery technology can be described as turbulent. Its industrial chain can be divided into the preparation of lithium titanate materials, the integration of lithium titanate battery production and lithium titanate battery systems, and its application in the electric vehicle and energy storage market with long cycle life. Compared with the graphite materials commonly used in traditional lithium-ion batteries, the framework structure of lithium titanate battery materials hardly shrink or expand during the charging and discharging process of lithium insertion and removal. It is called a zero-strain material, which prevents the general electrode material from falling off. /The problem of electrode structure damage caused by cell volume strain when intercalating lithium ions. The last advantage of lithium titanate is its fast charge-discharge capability and high charge rate. At present, the charging rate of Yinlong lithium titanate batteries is 10C or even 20C, while the battery charging rate of ordinary graphite anode materials is only 2C-4C. Based on these technical characteristics of lithium titanate batteries, the industry believes that it can meet the needs of new energy buses and large-scale energy storage equipment. An important issue faced by lithium titanate batteries in large-scale applications is cost. At the beginning of the project, the price was 46 times that of lithium iron phosphate batteries. Although the performance is significantly better than the existing lithium-ion batteries, economic factors greatly limit the market promotion of lithium-ion titanate batteries. Therefore, in order to realize the large-scale energy storage application of lithium titanate batteries, it is necessary to carry out technical transformation on the basis of the existing lithium titanate batteries for electric vehicles, including material systems, battery design and production and other technical aspects. This structure greatly reduces the cost while ensuring the long-life inherent characteristics of the lithium titanate battery. Lithium titanate batteries will continue to produce gas during the cycle, causing the battery pack to swell, especially at high temperatures, which will affect the contact between the positive electrode and the negative electrode, increase battery impedance and affect battery performance. This is also one of the important obstacles that limit the wide application of lithium titanate as a negative electrode material in batteries. Although the best safety performance has become a hot spot in the research of lithium titanate batteries, the Li4Ti5O12 material itself has low electronic conductivity (10-13S/cm) and lithium ion diffusion coefficient (10-10~10-13cm2/S). ). It limits the application under high-rate charging and discharging. Some scholars have shown that Li4Ti5O12 nano-scale particles can expand the effective reaction area and reduce the diffusion distance, thereby significantly improving the rate performance of the material. However, it should be pointed out that the processing of nano-material particles is usually difficult and requires higher costs. It is currently difficult to achieve large-scale industrial production. The above is the development overview of lithium titanate battery technology and some detailed analysis of its advantages and disadvantages worthy of everyone to learn. I hope that I can give you some help when you are just getting in touch. 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