electronic nicotine delivery systems: overheating, fires and explosions

by:CTECHi     2020-01-24
Electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS)-
Related overheating, fire or explosion (OH/F/EXP)
Since at least 2009 incidents.
Objective to determine the number and nature of the end OH/F/EXP event in the United States.
Method center for tobacco products (CTP)
Scientists look for incident reports in five federal agencies, scientific literature and the media.
The survey results 100 reference sources identified 92 OH/F/EXP events in the United States, of which 45 (49%)
47 injured and 67 injured (73%)
Property losses other than products involved.
Events were found in the media (n=50; 54%)
And report to the four agencies (n=42; 46%).
The reporting rate peaked at the end of 2013 at an average of six reports per month, with a smaller peak of three to four reports per month in 2015.
All reports are incomplete and events are different.
The international events of the three countries were mentioned and the international response to the events was outlined.
Conclusion The scope, cause and trajectory of the end OH/F/EXP event are still not fully determined.
Some events lead to life.
Threatening injuries, permanent disfigurement or disability and significant property losses indicate the need for continuous monitoring and risk reduction.
A more comprehensive report contributes to future analysis and helps identify the root cause and contributors of the OH/F/EXP event.
Electronic nicotine delivery system in the background (ENDS)-
Related overheating, fire or explosion (OH/F/EXP)
Since at least 2009 incidents.
Objective to determine the number and nature of the end OH/F/EXP event in the United States.
Method center for tobacco products (CTP)
Scientists look for incident reports in five federal agencies, scientific literature and the media.
The survey results 100 reference sources identified 92 OH/F/EXP events in the United States, of which 45 (49%)
47 injured and 67 injured (73%)
Property losses other than products involved.
Events were found in the media (n=50; 54%)
And report to the four agencies (n=42; 46%).
The reporting rate peaked at the end of 2013 at an average of six reports per month, with a smaller peak of three to four reports per month in 2015.
All reports are incomplete and events are different.
The international events of the three countries were mentioned and the international response to the events was outlined.
Conclusion The scope, cause and trajectory of the end OH/F/EXP event are still not fully determined.
Some events lead to life.
Threatening injuries, permanent disfigurement or disability and significant property losses indicate the need for continuous monitoring and risk reduction.
A more comprehensive report contributes to future analysis and helps identify the root cause and contributors of the OH/F/EXP event.
Food and Drug Administration of the United States (FDA)
Center for Tobacco Products (CTP)
Start receiving voluntary reports of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)-
Related overheating, fire or explosion (OH/F/EXP)
The events of 2011 and the identification of these events began in media reports on 2012.
On 2014, an American Fireman sent some media reports about the email to the FDA.
He concluded that there was a significant risk of death and/or serious injury.
Immediate action is required. ’ (
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Security Reporting Portal.
The deputy fire chief of the California fire department reported to the FDA.
Report date May 8, 2014. (
Unpublished data))
In the same year, after an airline accident, an American Fireman wrote to the Consumer Product Safety Board (CPSC)
He said, \"I am very worried that these heating devices can be opened by handling luggage normally, causing a fire at any time.
If the fire started in the cargo baggage area and was not found while the plane was flying, a major tragedy may occur . . . . . . Obviously, if these emails
Cigarettes can cause fires in the air or in other environments, such as homes and businesses. ” (
Consumer Product Safety Council
Letter from fire chief to CPSC chairman re: E-
Luggage at the airport caught fire.
Date of letter October 15, 2014.
Event Date August 9, 2014. (
Unpublished data))
In fact, terminal usage has been recorded in many settings that will
If the end explodes or fires, including medical facilities, 1-3 schools, 4, 5 multi-unit homes, 6-8 workplaces, restaurants and bars, users are at risk of injuries 9-11 prisons, 12 are driving, 13 are on public transport systems, and 14 include an overhead mid-plane.
FDA/CTP proposes to regulate the terminal as a tobacco product to protect public health;
Thus, CTP explores the number and nature of OH/F/EXP events to assess their impact on public health and to inform any potential future regulatory action.
Methods on 2012, CTP scientists launched an exploratory search in federal agencies, scientific literature, and news media in the United States to determine the end of the OH/F/EXP event and the results will end on September 30, 2015.
Database search terms use singular, plural, synonym, and other derivatives for the final product and its parts, and include events-
Related and injury
Related terms, customized for coding data or syntax related to each database.
With our knowledge of products, events, and consumer languages, search terms are evolving.
The online Supplement Table S1 introduces the search strategy in detail.
Supplementary research strategies adoptedtobaccocontrol-2015-
052626sup_table1. pdf]
Five federal agencies in the United States have received relevant reports: FDA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
, CPSC 17, United States Coast Guard 18 (USCG)
19 and the American Fire Department (USFA).
Our knowledge of the United States federal agencies governing authorities and inter-agency communications has led us to identify these five agencies.
USFA hosts firefighters
Report data on fire incidents.
However, we use USFA\'s publicly released analysis of 25 media events to gather their views as they say their national Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS)
No \". . . Collect information . . . . . . Specific enough to accurately analyze the frequency or impact of e-commerceCigarette fire.
\"At least two staff scientists consulted other experts as needed and reviewed 21 reports.
The minimum inclusion criteria are for credible events that occur in the United States involving the final product or part.
We exclude events from drills or exercises and battery events that do not identify the device used for the battery.
We manually looked at the date and place of the event, the description and the personally identifiable information (when available)
, Identifying duplicates and tracking
Update the report in each incoming report batch, and then review the data for the entire collection.
The co-authors did not contact the injured party, investigators, media or journalists for further information or clarification.
American scientists have discovered 92 discrete OH/F/EXP events reported in the United States (table 1). Forty-five reports (49%)
47 people were described as injured. Sixty-seven reports (73%)
Property loss other than the product is described.
The FDA/CTP authors have previously briefly described 21 events.
22-24, the I scientific literature did not produce any additional events.
Consumer/Related citizens identified 50 events25-80 from media channels and 42 from reports submitted to four federal government agencies in the United States (n=24)
Health care professionals (n=7)
Workers in the air transport industry (n=6)
And firefighters (n=5)(
Consumer Product Safety Council
Letter from fire chief to CPSC chairman re: E-
Luggage at the airport caught fire.
Date of letter October 15, 2014.
Event Date August 9, 2014. (
Unpublished data));
S. Department of Transport, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Safety and hazardous materials safety.
NASA Aviation Safety Reporting SystemReport 1263077.
Report date July 9, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Personal communication from the fire brigade to the CTP tobacco product monitoring team.
Activities date November 3, 2013
Report date November 12, 2013. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Security Reporting Portal.
The issue starts on March 26, 2014.
Report date March 26, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Personal communication between relevant citizens and CTP ombudsman.
Event Date not reported.
Report date April 30, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Security Reporting Portal.
The issue starts on August 7, 2014.
Report date August 7, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center. MedWatch.
Activities date April 14, 2015
Report date April 17, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Security Reporting Portal.
The issue starts on June 19, 2015.
Report date June 20, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date March 29, 2013.
Report date April 1, 2013. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date September 18, 2013.
Report date October 14, 2013. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date November 25, 2013.
Report date March 24, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date December 20, 2013.
Report date April 14, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety Council
Hospital reports to CPSC.
Unique ID 131254591.
Date of treatment December 24, 2013 (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 9, 2014.
Report date January 14, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 15, 2014.
Report date February 20, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date November 15, 2013.
Report date February 20, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 25, 2014.
Report date February 27, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 26, 2014.
Report date January 28, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date February 24, 2014.
Report date February 25, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date February 28, 2014.
Report date February 28, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date March 21, 2014.
Report date March 24, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date April 20, 2014.
Report date April 29, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date August 6, 2014.
Report date August 12, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date April 22, 2015.
Report date June 5, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date May 9, 2015.
Report date May 9, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date June 9, 2015.
Report date June 11, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date July 12, 2015.
Report date July 24, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date July 21, 2015.
Report date July 23, 2015. (
Unpublished data)).
The 81-97 reporting rate peaked at the end of 2013 at an average of six reports per month, with a smaller peak of three to four events per month in 2015 (figure 1).
Reports submitted to the government and the media are of similar quality in terms of subject matter and detail, and are therefore discussed as a data set.
A case summary appears in the online Supplement Table s2.
Supplementary form for overheating/fire/explosion of 92 electronic nicotine delivery systems in the United StatesS. [tobaccocontrol-2015-
052626sup_table2. pdf]
Look here: check the main report recipient of the inlineView popupable1 over overheating/fire/explosion incident and the new tabDownload powerpointFigure1 over overheating/fire/explosion in the United States, September 30, 2009-2015.
Electronic nicotine delivery system.
Summary of the end of the OH/F/EXP event in the United States 47 injured users included 34 users and 5 non-
Users and 8 who are not clear about the user\'s status.
Including chemical injuries (n=4)
Heat burn (n=33)
Smoke inhalation (n=4)
Fracture of the neck spine (n=2)
Fracture of the upper jaw and fingers (n=1)
Loss, displacement, or damage to one or more teeth (n=3), lacerations (n=5), bruising (n=1)
Psychological distress (n=3)
Feeling obstacles (n=3)
Excessive nicotine (n=1)
And oral discoloration (n=1).
Comprehensive Care includes First Aid (n=5)
Hospitalized for Burns (n=7)
Or surgical removal of foreign bodies (n=1).
Permanent effect (n=5 users)
Including disfigurement and disability. Non-
User injuries include minor hand burns (n=2)
Many Burns (n=1 toddler)
Hospitalized for inhalation of smoke (n=3)or burns (n=2).
Two events involving young people with unknown user status: 17-year-
The old persistent hand tear caused by the product explosion, two high school students \"disrupted\" e-commerce
The cigarette was not injured in the explosion.
According to the report, property losses range from the lowest to the dollar and \"lost the use of the House \".
Dominant indoor environment (n=57 (62%); residential=46).
OH/F/EXP events occur during charging (n=44 (48%); residential=32)
, After charging (n=4)
, When inhaled or between puffs (n=20; 22%)
And hold (n=3)
Or put the product in your pocket (n=4)
, During transportation (n=5)
In storage (n=4).
Of the eight incidents in the car, five were explosions in occupied or mobile cars.
Five passengers
Transportation incidents include fire in checked baggage at the airport and fire in checked baggage
Baggage discharge at scheduled landing consisting of smoke (n=1)or ‘acid’ (n=1)from carry-
When unloading, take out the bag and smoke from the checked bag.
There have been two related aircraft evacuations.
Three commercial transport events involve a fire in the air cargo stored at the time of the scheduled landing, and a fire in two ground classification centers --
One after International Air Transport
Other public places for activities are multi-unit housing (n=5), workplaces (n=4)
Medical settings (n=3;
Two near Medcal oxygen
Bar or restaurant (n=2)and a school.
Activities involve a range of products at different life cycle points. Most were e-
Cigarettes or parts;
One is the tube\"
The other is \"cigar \"--sized device’.
Four activities involving one-time e-commerce
Cigarettes: during use, two overheating, one explosion, one explosion when opening the original package. Fifty-five events (60%)
Product described as rechargeable or charged. Partially-
The battery determined is \"Lithium ion \"(n=7)
Rechargeable battery (n=4;
Includes a protected miniskirt), ‘lithium’ (n=5)
Lithium metal \'(n=2)
, \'Nickel card \'(n=1)and other (n=8).
The included charger/power descriptor is incomplete: Universal Serial Bus (USB)/computer (n=11), USB/wall (n=2), USB/car (n=1), USB (n=1), wall (n=7), car (n=6)
And mobile phones (n=2).
There was an incident with the product-
Specific and alternative chargers.
Charging time before the F/EXP event (n=16)
Ranging from \"less than 2 minutes\" to 5 minutes.
A product exploded when it was first charged. Product ages (n=13)
It ranges from never used to 16 months.
Fire is usually accompanied (n=45)
But twice before the explosion.
Seven reports describe fires without explosions;
Seven described the explosion without fire.
Six reports described during use did not progress to F/EXP, claiming that the activation button/battery was not turned off (n=2)
, And the failure of \"middle\"puff’ shut-
Off mechanism in several devices (n=1 report).
The report further describes OH during intermittent use for more than 1 week (n=1)and 3u2005months (n=1).
Three other OH reports describe a product that is left idle on the counter, attended for 20-30 minutes, and two carry-onon bags.
The two OH reports describe the prompt action taken to cool the device.
OH/F/EXP events occur when following and without instructions.
User actions that may be caused or facilitated include: using an alternative charger to a non-
Rechargeable batteries, use recalled or incorrect batteries and use them near oxygen.
Pioneer of perception (n=18)
It is noise, smell, leakage of battery, movement of equipment, flash or sparkling smoke.
US scientists identified 92 discrete OH/F/EXP events reported in the United States (table 1). Forty-five reports (49%)
47 people were described as injured. Sixty-seven reports (73%)
Property loss other than the product is described.
The FDA/CTP authors have previously briefly described 21 events.
22-24, the I scientific literature did not produce any additional events.
Consumer/Related citizens identified 50 events25-80 from media channels and 42 from reports submitted to four federal government agencies in the United States (n=24)
Health care professionals (n=7)
Workers in the air transport industry (n=6)
And firefighters (n=5)(
Consumer Product Safety Council
Letter from fire chief to CPSC chairman re: E-
Luggage at the airport caught fire.
Date of letter October 15, 2014.
Event Date August 9, 2014. (
Unpublished data));
S. Department of Transport, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Safety and hazardous materials safety.
NASA Aviation Safety Reporting SystemReport 1263077.
Report date July 9, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Personal communication from the fire brigade to the CTP tobacco product monitoring team.
Activities date November 3, 2013
Report date November 12, 2013. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Security Reporting Portal.
The issue starts on March 26, 2014.
Report date March 26, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Personal communication between relevant citizens and CTP ombudsman.
Event Date not reported.
Report date April 30, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Security Reporting Portal.
The issue starts on August 7, 2014.
Report date August 7, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center. MedWatch.
Activities date April 14, 2015
Report date April 17, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Security Reporting Portal.
The issue starts on June 19, 2015.
Report date June 20, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date March 29, 2013.
Report date April 1, 2013. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date September 18, 2013.
Report date October 14, 2013. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date November 25, 2013.
Report date March 24, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date December 20, 2013.
Report date April 14, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety Council
Hospital reports to CPSC.
Unique ID 131254591.
Date of treatment December 24, 2013 (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 9, 2014.
Report date January 14, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 15, 2014.
Report date February 20, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date November 15, 2013.
Report date February 20, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 25, 2014.
Report date February 27, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 26, 2014.
Report date January 28, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date February 24, 2014.
Report date February 25, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date February 28, 2014.
Report date February 28, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date March 21, 2014.
Report date March 24, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date April 20, 2014.
Report date April 29, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date August 6, 2014.
Report date August 12, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date April 22, 2015.
Report date June 5, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date May 9, 2015.
Report date May 9, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date June 9, 2015.
Report date June 11, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date July 12, 2015.
Report date July 24, 2015. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date July 21, 2015.
Report date July 23, 2015. (
Unpublished data)).
The 81-97 reporting rate peaked at the end of 2013 at an average of six reports per month, with a smaller peak of three to four events per month in 2015 (figure 1).
Reports submitted to the government and the media are of similar quality in terms of subject matter and detail, and are therefore discussed as a data set.
A case summary appears in the online Supplement Table s2.
Supplementary form for overheating/fire/explosion of 92 electronic nicotine delivery systems in the United StatesS. [tobaccocontrol-2015-
052626sup_table2. pdf]
Look here: check the main report recipient of the inlineView popupable1 over overheating/fire/explosion incident and the new tabDownload powerpointFigure1 over overheating/fire/explosion in the United States, September 30, 2009-2015.
Electronic nicotine delivery system.
Summary of the end of the OH/F/EXP event in the United States 47 injured users included 34 users and 5 non-
Users and 8 who are not clear about the user\'s status.
Including chemical injuries (n=4)
Heat burn (n=33)
Smoke inhalation (n=4)
Fracture of the neck spine (n=2)
Fracture of the upper jaw and fingers (n=1)
Loss, displacement, or damage to one or more teeth (n=3), lacerations (n=5), bruising (n=1)
Psychological distress (n=3)
Feeling obstacles (n=3)
Excessive nicotine (n=1)
And oral discoloration (n=1).
Comprehensive Care includes First Aid (n=5)
Hospitalized for Burns (n=7)
Or surgical removal of foreign bodies (n=1).
Permanent effect (n=5 users)
Including disfigurement and disability. Non-
User injuries include minor hand burns (n=2)
Many Burns (n=1 toddler)
Hospitalized for inhalation of smoke (n=3)or burns (n=2).
Two events involving young people with unknown user status: 17-year-
The old persistent hand tear caused by the product explosion, two high school students \"disrupted\" e-commerce
The cigarette was not injured in the explosion.
According to the report, property losses range from the lowest to the dollar and \"lost the use of the House \".
Dominant indoor environment (n=57 (62%); residential=46).
OH/F/EXP events occur during charging (n=44 (48%); residential=32)
, After charging (n=4)
, When inhaled or between puffs (n=20; 22%)
And hold (n=3)
Or put the product in your pocket (n=4)
, During transportation (n=5)
In storage (n=4).
Of the eight incidents in the car, five were explosions in occupied or mobile cars.
Five passengers
Transportation incidents include fire in checked baggage at the airport and fire in checked baggage
Baggage discharge at scheduled landing consisting of smoke (n=1)or ‘acid’ (n=1)from carry-
When unloading, take out the bag and smoke from the checked bag.
There have been two related aircraft evacuations.
Three commercial transport events involve a fire in the air cargo stored at the time of the scheduled landing, and a fire in two ground classification centers --
One after International Air Transport
Other public places for activities are multi-unit housing (n=5), workplaces (n=4)
Medical settings (n=3;
Two near Medcal oxygen
Bar or restaurant (n=2)and a school.
Activities involve a range of products at different life cycle points. Most were e-
Cigarettes or parts;
One is the tube\"
The other is \"cigar \"--sized device’.
Four activities involving one-time e-commerce
Cigarettes: during use, two overheating, one explosion, one explosion when opening the original package. Fifty-five events (60%)
Product described as rechargeable or charged. Partially-
The battery determined is \"Lithium ion \"(n=7)
Rechargeable battery (n=4;
Includes a protected miniskirt), ‘lithium’ (n=5)
Lithium metal \'(n=2)
, \'Nickel card \'(n=1)and other (n=8).
The included charger/power descriptor is incomplete: Universal Serial Bus (USB)/computer (n=11), USB/wall (n=2), USB/car (n=1), USB (n=1), wall (n=7), car (n=6)
And mobile phones (n=2).
There was an incident with the product-
Specific and alternative chargers.
Charging time before the F/EXP event (n=16)
Ranging from \"less than 2 minutes\" to 5 minutes.
A product exploded when it was first charged. Product ages (n=13)
It ranges from never used to 16 months.
Fire is usually accompanied (n=45)
But twice before the explosion.
Seven reports describe fires without explosions;
Seven described the explosion without fire.
Six reports described during use did not progress to F/EXP, claiming that the activation button/battery was not turned off (n=2)
, And the failure of \"middle\"puff’ shut-
Off mechanism in several devices (n=1 report).
The report further describes OH during intermittent use for more than 1 week (n=1)and 3u2005months (n=1).
Three other OH reports describe a product that is left idle on the counter, attended for 20-30 minutes, and two carry-onon bags.
The two OH reports describe the prompt action taken to cool the device.
OH/F/EXP events occur when following and without instructions.
User actions that may be caused or facilitated include: using an alternative charger to a non-
Rechargeable batteries, use recalled or incorrect batteries and use them near oxygen.
Pioneer of perception (n=18)
It is noise, smell, leakage of battery, movement of equipment, flash or sparkling smoke.
The relevant literature found that the end OH/F/EXP Event Summary outside the US media reported more than 100 F/EXP events in the UK, and in 2014, the weekly activity rate exceeded 1 time.
The list of 98 19 UK cases shows topics similar to those in the US.
99 a fire in Canada since the end of 2013, the patient was injured, 100 two F/EXP-
The death associated with the UK101-103 and the end of the use of medical oxygen involved in the first reported Australian F/EXP104.
Response to the OH/F/EXP event the consumer\'s response includes the same product replacement (
Three events similar or worse)
Obtain different purposes, seek information, warn others, ask for a refund or compensation, file a lawsuit, return to the burning cigarette, and seek a stop.
Responses from retailers or manufacturers include sales of explosive bags and safe storage or handling boxes, quality inspection of retailer products, point-of-
Selling consumer education, apologizing, collecting damaged products, offering refunds or replacements, inventory control, product recalls, 106, 107 accusing counterfeit products and product improvements in labeling and design.
Public health response measures include providing accident reporting guidance to the US Fire Department;
108 Health Canada Consumer product update warning e-
The use of cigarettes around oxygen;
109 and notice of the international aviation administration on the prohibition of e-commerce
Cigarette use on commercial aircraft, 110-113 requires passengers to carry the end and spare batteries separately in compartment 117 and No. , and prohibits end products from charging on aircraft.
113, the public release of 117 incidents in the United States, 17-19, 118, and public health authorities and commercial entities provided consumer safety advice.
An end OH/F/EXP Event Summary outside 119-123 US media reported more than 100 F/EXP events in the UK, with the event rate exceeding once a week at the end of 2014.
The list of 98 19 UK cases shows topics similar to those in the US.
99 a fire in Canada since the end of 2013, the patient was injured, 100 two F/EXP-
The death associated with the UK101-103 and the end of the use of medical oxygen involved in the first reported Australian F/EXP104.
Response to the OH/F/EXP event the consumer\'s response includes the same product replacement (
Three events similar or worse)
Obtain different purposes, seek information, warn others, ask for a refund or compensation, file a lawsuit, return to the burning cigarette, and seek a stop.
Responses from retailers or manufacturers include sales of explosive bags and safe storage or handling boxes, quality inspection of retailer products, point-of-
Selling consumer education, apologizing, collecting damaged products, offering refunds or replacements, inventory control, product recalls, 106, 107 accusing counterfeit products and product improvements in labeling and design.
Public health response measures include providing accident reporting guidance to the US Fire Department;
108 Health Canada Consumer product update warning e-
The use of cigarettes around oxygen;
109 and notice of the international aviation administration on the prohibition of e-commerce
Cigarette use on commercial aircraft, 110-113 requires passengers to carry the end and spare batteries separately in compartment 117 and No. , and prohibits end products from charging on aircraft.
113, the public release of 117 incidents in the United States, 17-19, 118, and public health authorities and commercial entities provided consumer safety advice.
Discussion restrictions for well reasonsknown long-
Standing phenomenon below
Reporting adverse events as well as problems with search methods, data compiled here cannot be used to calculate incidence or prevalence.
Case reports may be inaccurate or incomplete and tend to cover more sensational events.
Our analysis relies primarily on written text, as images are generally unavailable or irrelevant.
The \"investigation\" of the incident was inconsistent and not completely detailed;
Some are challenged by the lack of device identifiers and equipment damage. Thirty-
Four reports came from questionnaires designed for public safety supervision, four of which came from tobacco from the CTP security report Portal
Specific questionnaires;
124 58 reports came from unstructured sources.
Different data sources may affect data reporting and analysis and may lead to some observed event variability.
Despite our best efforts, there may still be undiscovered duplicate cases.
Due to the nature of search and voluntary reporting to many sources, this compilation may be lower
Indicates the real number of OH/F/EXP events.
General discussion while the actual number of end OH/F/EXP events is unknown, the rate seems to be generally lower relative to the final usage rate.
Event rate fluctuates over time (figure 1)
Even though America\'s final usage is growing steadily every year.
125 American adults \"always use\" e-commerce
Cigarettes grow from 0. 6% to 12.
6% of the population is between 2009 and 2014,126.
7% of American adults report
Use cigarettes daily or several days on 2014.
127 The decline in the incident rate may be related to voluntary product design and label improvement, consumer awareness and education, or the prohibition of the use of products in various environments by local and organization.
9, 11, 14, 110, 111, 113, 128 the increase in the rate of events may be high with the accompanying use or product-risk medical (
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Security Reporting Portal.
The issue starts on June 19, 2015.
Report date June 20, 2015. (
Unpublished data))
Air travel (
S. Department of Transport, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Safety and hazardous materials safety.
NASA Aviation Safety Reporting SystemReport 1263077.
Report date July 9, 2015. (
Unpublished data))
85, 86, 96, 97 settings.
Peak and trough events during the period 2013 to 2015 (figure 1)
Inconsistent with our changes in search strategies.
Drivers of fluctuations in tobacco product reporting rates
Related adverse events are unknown.
In an explosion reported to the FDA (
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Personal communication from the fire brigade to the CTP tobacco product monitoring team.
Activities date November 3, 2013
Report date November 12, 2013. (
Unpublished data))
The fire chief has determined that due to the risk of a serious explosion during the charging process, the device is one of the devices recalled by a Chinese retailer.
106 to further explore potential contributors to event rates, we searched the scientific, commercial and consumer literature as well as the USA129 and global103 public product recall library for current and historical end product recalls, this is described in detail in the online Supplement Table s1.
No recall was found in the US repository, while the global repository released nine related recalls in English between 2012 and 2015.
These recalls are for the \"serious\" electrical hazard of e -.
Cigarettes or electrical parts of four European countries are involved.
Only once in the global recall determined how many incidents occurred (n=1)
, Also does not provide data on how many products have been sold or recalled.
Identified hazards include electric shock related to poor insulation of the charger, lack of cutting, fire or burn
In order to avoid overcharging, the gap/creepage distance between the primary and secondary windings of the power supply is insufficient, the tip is overheated during charging, the internal connection is insufficient, and it does not meet the four European electrical product standards.
130-133 The recall involves the withdrawal of products from the market (n=3)
Recall products from end users (n=2)or both (n=4).
It is unclear whether these recalls will affect the US market.
Seven of these recalls occurred on April.
In November 2014, directly corresponding to the time of sharp decline, followed by low
OH/F/EXP activity level in the United States (figure1).
Searching for events related to products listed in the online Supplement Table S2, we found three events with similar product identifiers and related results that occurred 2 months ago
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 25, 2014.
Report date February 27, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 26, 2014.
Report date January 28, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date February 24, 2014.
Report date February 25, 2014. (
Unpublished data)).
Advantages and disadvantages of various battery types and their failure modes, as well as standards related to the safety and transportation of batteries and electronic equipment, engineers and other experts from the international private sector 134 and the government sector have already introduced them elsewhere.
Analysis of e-commerce published twice 116, 117, 135 and 136
Prevention and corrective actions are recommended for cigarettes.
After analyzing the 25 F/EXP news report that 80% of the events occurred during charging, USFA concluded with e-
However, unless offset by design improvements, cigarette sales may increase with sales.
USFA recommends that users be educated on safe charging practices, strong warnings, and product design changes to eliminate USB electrical connections and include electrical protection circuits.
137 CTP engineer System Review 2004-2013 e-
Cigarette products/designs obtained from systematic searches including literature (n=14), patents (n=16), conferences (n=3)and websites (n=2)
It is recommended to overcharge protection and power off-
The shutdown and internal over-voltage release mechanism can reduce some battery failures.
Whether there is a new failure mode for 138 ENDS products remains to be determined.
ENDS products are largely unregulated in the United States.
Although some states, localities and organizations have laws or policies that restrict the sale or use in certain places, it is basically voluntary in design, manufacture, sale and use.
S. consumers expect the use and performance of electronic products to be safe and predictable and warn about the risks involved.
At least six us f/EXP events and seven other events leading to legal proceedings reflect this expectation, in which the user reports that there are no or misleading instructions for use or no warnings
On October 2015, a US jury ruled $1.
9 million to a woman who has a reputation for physical and emotional \"lifetime scars\" associated with the 2013 end product explosion.
The jury found it wrong for US dealers, wholesalers and retailers to \"participate in the distribution of products that do not meet any reasonable safety expectations --
Battery Charger should not explode
There is no warning of known dangers.
\"139us consumers are also used to correcting product problems found.
For example, the largest-
In 2006, Dell computer recalled four computers due to a \"serious\" OH/F accident.
1 million laptops
140 in 2013, HP recalled 145000 000 laptop chargers after receiving 9 reports of overheating and melting during use, including 1 minor burn and 1 minor property
141 at 2015, a strange OH event of lithium
The ion-driven E-credit card reader on airoplane in the United States has no associated damage, resulting in the manufacturer recalling the undisclosed \"all similar models \".
142-144 accurate and complete sales data for specific brands and models of us end products are not available.
However, in addressing this consumer security risk, the terminal product sector appears to be lagging behind the mobile consumer electronics sector.
Because of the limitations of the well-known long-
Standing phenomenon below
Reporting adverse events as well as problems with search methods, data compiled here cannot be used to calculate incidence or prevalence.
Case reports may be inaccurate or incomplete and tend to cover more sensational events.
Our analysis relies primarily on written text, as images are generally unavailable or irrelevant.
The \"investigation\" of the incident was inconsistent and not completely detailed;
Some are challenged by the lack of device identifiers and equipment damage. Thirty-
Four reports came from questionnaires designed for public safety supervision, four of which came from tobacco from the CTP security report Portal
Specific questionnaires;
124 58 reports came from unstructured sources.
Different data sources may affect data reporting and analysis and may lead to some observed event variability.
Despite our best efforts, there may still be undiscovered duplicate cases.
Due to the nature of search and voluntary reporting to many sources, this compilation may be lower
Indicates the real number of OH/F/EXP events.
General discussion while the actual number of end OH/F/EXP events is unknown, the rate seems to be generally lower relative to the final usage rate.
Event rate fluctuates over time (figure 1)
Even though America\'s final usage is growing steadily every year.
125 American adults \"always use\" e-commerce
Cigarettes grow from 0. 6% to 12.
6% of the population is between 2009 and 2014,126.
7% of American adults report
Use cigarettes daily or several days on 2014.
127 The decline in the incident rate may be related to voluntary product design and label improvement, consumer awareness and education, or the prohibition of the use of products in various environments by local and organization.
9, 11, 14, 110, 111, 113, 128 the increase in the rate of events may be high with the accompanying use or product-risk medical (
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Security Reporting Portal.
The issue starts on June 19, 2015.
Report date June 20, 2015. (
Unpublished data))
Air travel (
S. Department of Transport, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Safety and hazardous materials safety.
NASA Aviation Safety Reporting SystemReport 1263077.
Report date July 9, 2015. (
Unpublished data))
85, 86, 96, 97 settings.
Peak and trough events during the period 2013 to 2015 (figure 1)
Inconsistent with our changes in search strategies.
Drivers of fluctuations in tobacco product reporting rates
Related adverse events are unknown.
In an explosion reported to the FDA (
S. Department of Health and Public Service, Food and Drug Administration, tobacco products center.
Personal communication from the fire brigade to the CTP tobacco product monitoring team.
Activities date November 3, 2013
Report date November 12, 2013. (
Unpublished data))
The fire chief has determined that due to the risk of a serious explosion during the charging process, the device is one of the devices recalled by a Chinese retailer.
106 to further explore potential contributors to event rates, we searched the scientific, commercial and consumer literature as well as the USA129 and global103 public product recall library for current and historical end product recalls, this is described in detail in the online Supplement Table s1.
No recall was found in the US repository, while the global repository released nine related recalls in English between 2012 and 2015.
These recalls are for the \"serious\" electrical hazard of e -.
Cigarettes or electrical parts of four European countries are involved.
Only once in the global recall determined how many incidents occurred (n=1)
, Also does not provide data on how many products have been sold or recalled.
Identified hazards include electric shock related to poor insulation of the charger, lack of cutting, fire or burn
In order to avoid overcharging, the gap/creepage distance between the primary and secondary windings of the power supply is insufficient, the tip is overheated during charging, the internal connection is insufficient, and it does not meet the four European electrical product standards.
130-133 The recall involves the withdrawal of products from the market (n=3)
Recall products from end users (n=2)or both (n=4).
It is unclear whether these recalls will affect the US market.
Seven of these recalls occurred on April.
In November 2014, directly corresponding to the time of sharp decline, followed by low
OH/F/EXP activity level in the United States (figure1).
Searching for events related to products listed in the online Supplement Table S2, we found three events with similar product identifiers and related results that occurred 2 months ago
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 25, 2014.
Report date February 27, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date January 26, 2014.
Report date January 28, 2014. (
Unpublished data);
Consumer Product Safety CouncilSaferProducts. gov Report.
Event Date February 24, 2014.
Report date February 25, 2014. (
Unpublished data)).
Advantages and disadvantages of various battery types and their failure modes, as well as standards related to the safety and transportation of batteries and electronic equipment, engineers and other experts from the international private sector 134 and the government sector have already introduced them elsewhere.
Analysis of e-commerce published twice 116, 117, 135 and 136
Prevention and corrective actions are recommended for cigarettes.
After analyzing the 25 F/EXP news report that 80% of the events occurred during charging, USFA concluded with e-
However, unless offset by design improvements, cigarette sales may increase with sales.
USFA recommends that users be educated on safe charging practices, strong warnings, and product design changes to eliminate USB electrical connections and include electrical protection circuits.
137 CTP engineer System Review 2004-2013 e-
Cigarette products/designs obtained from systematic searches including literature (n=14), patents (n=16), conferences (n=3)and websites (n=2)
It is recommended to overcharge protection and power off-
The shutdown and internal over-voltage release mechanism can reduce some battery failures.
Whether there is a new failure mode for 138 ENDS products remains to be determined.
ENDS products are largely unregulated in the United States.
Although some states, localities and organizations have laws or policies that restrict the sale or use in certain places, it is basically voluntary in design, manufacture, sale and use.
S. consumers expect the use and performance of electronic products to be safe and predictable and warn about the risks involved.
At least six us f/EXP events and seven other events leading to legal proceedings reflect this expectation, in which the user reports that there are no or misleading instructions for use or no warnings
On October 2015, a US jury ruled $1.
9 million to a woman who has a reputation for physical and emotional \"lifetime scars\" associated with the 2013 end product explosion.
The jury found it wrong for US dealers, wholesalers and retailers to \"participate in the distribution of products that do not meet any reasonable safety expectations --
Battery Charger should not explode
There is no warning of known dangers.
\"139us consumers are also used to correcting product problems found.
For example, the largest-
In 2006, Dell computer recalled four computers due to a \"serious\" OH/F accident.
1 million laptops
140 in 2013, HP recalled 145000 000 laptop chargers after receiving 9 reports of overheating and melting during use, including 1 minor burn and 1 minor property
141 at 2015, a strange OH event of lithium
The ion-driven E-credit card reader on airoplane in the United States has no associated damage, resulting in the manufacturer recalling the undisclosed \"all similar models \".
142-144 accurate and complete sales data for specific brands and models of us end products are not available.
However, in addressing this consumer security risk, the terminal product sector appears to be lagging behind the mobile consumer electronics sector.
Conclusion The United States decentralized and primary reporting presents challenges to efforts to identify and analyze the OH/F/EXP event for the purpose.
Including a set of core information in each report, such as the fields shown in the online Supplement Table S2, can facilitate and improve future analysis.
The use of complete product descriptors with standardized products and part terms can further assist in the analysis.
The Security Reporting Portal for CTP can accept full event reports, including images and trackingup information.
124 The end of the OH/F/EXP incident occurred in the international community.
The scope, cause and trajectory of events in the United States have not yet been fully determined.
Despite increasing efforts by various authorities outside the FDA to limit or control the environment for possible use purposes, events continued to occur in high levels in 2015
Medical and aviation risks
Traffic settings.
The events identified vary depending on the products, parts, personnel, and equipment involved
User interaction, environment, surrounding environment and results including life
Causing serious injuries, permanent disfigurement and disability, as well as significant property losses.
These findings indicate the need for continuous monitoring, as well as strategies for preventing and mitigating events, such as: failure mode analysis;
Pay attention to equipment design;
Good manufacturing specifications;
Educate consumers, industry and public health professionals on risk, prevention and incident reporting;
Supervision continues.
Data at the end of OH/F/EXP can inform clinical consultation, informed consent in clinical research, consumer best practices, product labeling, organizational and public health system policies and regulations.
This is the largest compilation of electronic nicotine delivery systems in the United States (ENDS)
Overheating/fire/explosion (OH/F/EXP)
Events analyzed and released so far.
The reason, number and trajectory for ending the OH/F/EXP event are still not fully defined.
This limited data set provides information to support the exploration of strategies to prevent or mitigate OH/F/EXP events that protect public health purposes.
Daniel P. St.
Laurent, RN, MS for the preparation of the manuscript for technical assistance.
Deborah Neveleff, MBA, is responsible for editorial assistance in manuscript preparation.
Gwindolin Halford Kitzmiller MLS and Joyce, the assistance of the major league, assist them in document retrieval.
Paul Aggie, Master of Public Health,Sarah Lee, MPH;
Tyra Smith, Dr. S. , CCRP;
Mary Joe Salerno, MPH, CPH, help with Google Alert search and reference management.
Nancy Chang, MD, provides limited assistance in case studies. Ryan D.
Engineering consultant Foringer.
Wang Baoguang, MD, MPH, helps with information shared by the Consumer Product Safety Committee data source and CPSC.
Commission on Consumer Product Safety (CPSC)
Data receiving and Information Department (EPDSI)
Information sharing.
United States Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Office of dangerous goods safety (HMSP)
Assist in finding publicly released data and information sharing for the FAA and the US Coast Guard National Response Center.
S. Department of Homeland Security, the federal emergency response administration, the US Fire Department, and the national fire data center for information on their related activities and data. Ii-
Chen Lun, MD, Cathy
Dr. Backinger, Master of Public Health, Dr. Selena Husten, management of public health,
Review and revision of horizontal manuscripts.
Keaveny P.
Oxygen fireball terror like e-
Grandma was blown up in the hospital.
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Cigarette chargers caught fire in the hospital.
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Monmonmonroy AE, homemel E, Smith ST, etc.
Elderly women who use electronic cigarettes have atrial fibrillation.
Data of Wanfang Geriatr 2012; 20:28–32.
Editorial: steam in the boy\'s room?
It could be a real problem.
The Mulberry Herald April 22, 2015(
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School Evacuation after E-
The cigarette exploded.
Metro October 15, 2014. (
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Cigarettes are believed to have caused a fire in a student apartment.
The Nottingham Post March 7, 2014(
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Apartment Park Stone Road evacuated after \"E -\"\"Cigarette Fire\"
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Student dormitories to discuss new smoking policies.
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Incorporate cigarette/e-nicotine delivery systems into tobacco workplace policies.
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Video: email
After the cigarette was put on the iPad charger, it exploded on the face of the barmaid.
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Hommes marynak K, hollmes CB, King BA, etc.
State laws prohibiting the sale and indoor use of electronic nicotine delivery systems to minors
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Wolff KC, Karan LD, Prochaska JJ.
E-cigarettes in prison: Panacea or public health problems?
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Vaping and driving.
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Klein, for example, Berman M Kennedy Road
Tobacco control policies in the outdoor areas of large transportation systems in the United States.
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Email-
Sparks of cigarettes
Emergency flight for BWIbound plane.
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It is considered that tobacco products should be subject to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act, which is amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.
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1136/tobacco control-2013-
051479 OpenUrlAbstract/free full Text Durmowicz EL, Rudy, SF, Chen, me.
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The cigarette exploded on the man\'s face and the suit was charged.
Consumer Affairs April 17, 2012(
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Is smoke-free cigarettes safer? E-
Cig explodes in the smoker\'s mouth
Los Angeles Times February 16, 2012(
Visit February 16, 2012). Cbs News staff
Electronic cigarettes exploded in people\'s mouths, causing serious harm.
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The electronic cigarette in the hands of a mascoji woman exploded. Fox23.
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Visit November 12, 2013).
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Visit June 18, 2015). ↵Downing M.
Sherman\'s email
Cigarettes explode while charging. News 12 KXII.
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Men\'s prosecution in E-Hou County
The cigarette exploded on his face.
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After the couple sued, e-
The cigarette battery in the car exploded.
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In AZ, the cigarette charger ignited the spark of the car. CBS5.
KPHO Broadcasting Corporation.
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Cigarettes catch fire while charging.
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Cigarettes almost set off a fire in the Phoenix apartment. CBS 5-
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The cigarette exploded and caused a small fire. KFOR.
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Fire captain: fire caused by charging electronic cigarettes.
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At 4 feet in the living room, cigarettes exploded and flames burned.
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Utah fire chief says cigarettes light clothes for toddlers.
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No smoke but lots of fire! Another e-
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In Idaho, cigarettes have caused a house fire, and electronic cigarette batteries have overcharged and exploded.
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The reason the mattress caught fire was cigarettes. KRDO.
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Cigarettes explode while charging.
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Honolulu apartment due to e-cigarette.
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The Takoma building caught fire due to a cigarette explosion.
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