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Comprehensive Guide to Forklift Battery Types and Their Power Sources


Comprehensive Guide to Forklift Battery Types and Their Power Sources

Forklift batteries serve as the DC power source for various equipment such as forklifts, tractors, transport vehicles, and underground mining locomotives. Widely used in airports, stations, ports, vegetable and fruit markets, and industrial warehouses, these batteries are crucial for the operation of electric forklifts. A forklift battery refers to a dedicated battery used in electric forklifts, essentially a storage battery that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

It is important to note that batteries should not be placed horizontally. This is because the internal composition typically includes 22-28% dilute sulfuric acid. When the battery is upright, the electrolyte can submerge the plates, leaving some space above. However, when placed horizontally, part of the plates may be exposed to air, which is detrimental to the battery's health. Additionally, most batteries have vent holes or are connected to the outside, making it easy for the electrolyte to leak out when the battery is laid flat.

01 Lithium Titanate Batteries

Lithium titanate batteries are leaders in power energy. According to standard data, lithium titanate batteries can maintain 80% of their energy capacity even after 20,000 cycles. Unlike other lithium batteries, which suffer from a decrease in lifespan due to the catalytic effect on the lithium-ion chemical reaction during charging and discharging, lithium titanate batteries have minimal impact from this process. This unique property prevents significant capacity degradation, thereby extending the battery's lifespan to the maximum extent.

02 Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Batteries

LiFePO4 batteries are known for their long lifespan and high safety, as they can withstand high temperatures. They also offer excellent charge and discharge performance. Under normal use, a LiFePO4 battery can retain about 80% of its capacity even after 1600 cycles. In the market, some electric forklifts using these batteries can achieve up to 3000 cycles.

03 Ternary Lithium Batteries

Ternary lithium batteries are favored for their small size, light weight, and high energy density. They are widely used not only in forklifts but also in many other industries. However, due to their high cost, they are typically found in high-end electric forklifts. These batteries are not resistant to high temperatures but perform well in low temperatures. The typical cycle performance ranges from 1200 to 2000 cycles.

04 Graphene Batteries

Graphene batteries are well-known and widely discussed. Despite varying opinions, they remain popular. Major brands have launched exclusive graphene battery products, leveraging their natural advantages. Graphene batteries combine the safety of lead-acid batteries with the unique properties of graphene, increasing cycle performance to 1000-1300 cycles.

05 Manganese Iron Lithium Batteries

Manganese iron lithium batteries are among the more cost-effective lithium batteries. They exhibit good low-temperature performance and safety. However, due to the material properties, these batteries can easily release gases, leading to swelling. Consequently, their lifespan is relatively short, generally achieving over 800 cycles, with 80% capacity retention after 500 cycles.

06 Black Gold Batteries

Black gold batteries are similar to graphene batteries. They enhance single cell energy density, conductivity, and corrosion resistance through graphene composite modified spherical ternary negative materials, thereby extending the battery lifespan. The core of black gold batteries is also a type of lead-acid battery, with cycle charge and discharge times exceeding 420 cycles. With proper maintenance, they can reach up to 700 cycles.

07 Lead-Acid Batteries

Ordinary lead-acid batteries currently dominate the market due to their low cost and repairable nature. However, their durability is a notable drawback. The maximum cycle life for lead-acid batteries is around 500 cycles, with an ideal performance of about 350 cycles, though often less in practice. Thus, they are among the least durable types of common batteries.


When selecting a battery, it is crucial to consider various factors such as cost, safety, and practicality. Despite the lower durability of some batteries, like lead-acid batteries, they hold a significant market share due to their affordability. Conversely, more durable options like lithium titanate batteries are less prevalent due to higher costs. Choosing the right battery involves balancing these dimensions to meet specific operational needs.

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