The recycling of power lithium batteries is imminent. Can the 200,000 tons of scrap power lithium batteries be properly disposed of?

by:CTECHi     2021-08-14

According to the forecast of the my country Automotive Technology Research Center, from 2018 to 2020, the country’s cumulative scrapped power batteries will reach 120,000 to 200,000 tons. By 2025, the annual scrap volume of power batteries may reach 350,000 tons. Horror numbers appearing on the rise. The information released by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology also shows that the cumulative amount of power storage batteries in my country exceeds 131GWh, and the scale of the industry ranks in the forefront. In terms of the estimated amount of scrapped batteries and the average service life of power lithium batteries, a large number of new energy vehicles promoted by policies that year are now close to the critical value, and the recycling of power lithium batteries is actually urgent.

In 2018, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology jointly issued a statement to the seven ministries and commissions that the recycling of power lithium batteries has entered the standardization stage. This matter was put on the agenda again in February this year, and it will be held soon. In the two sessions, the 'Proposal on Accelerating the Upgrade to Build a Full Life Cycle Value Chain of New Energy Power Lithium Batteries' clearly suggested that the construction, centralized storage, collection, identification, packaging, transportation, and designated transfer of residual value battery echelon use of outlets , Fixed-point dismantling, etc., issued a series of management measures and supervision methods. It can be said that the relevant policies regarding the recycling of power lithium batteries have been very intense. Therefore, corresponding to the original model of new energy being promoted, in 2018, the waste power lithium battery recycling market reached a scale of 5 billion yuan. From 2020 to 2023, The scale of the waste power lithium battery recycling market will further rise to 13.31-31 billion yuan. Obviously, many companies have already focused on this industry.

Whether it is the ternary lithium-ion battery on mainstream models or the previous generation lithium iron phosphate battery, they all contain elements such as cobalt, nickel, manganese and lithium. Cause heavy metal pollution, highly corrosive and highly toxic electrolytes will harm the environment and human health. At present, there are two recycling methods commonly used in the world. One is cascade utilization, that is, the secondary or multiple utilization of power lithium batteries retired from automobiles, such as for sightseeing cars, electric bicycles, electric lighting, etc. , Or as an energy storage device for clean energy such as solar energy and wind energy. For another example, domestic companies apply waste power lithium batteries to product base stations to reduce operating costs. ; The second is recycling, that is, disassembling the battery and recycling the raw materials and metals. There are many treatment methods in this way, and the efficiency is relatively high.

Although it seems that there is a reasonable solution, as many people worry about, the recycling of power lithium batteries is actually facing a big problem. This is They believe that electric cars are not really environmentally friendly. First of all, no matter whether it is at home or abroad, the transportation, processing requirements, recycling and secondary utilization price system in the recycling process of power lithium batteries, and the recycling technical specifications of different types of batteries have not yet been clear. In addition, it is not clear which department will supervise the implementation of the power lithium battery recycling policy, as well as the specific issues such as how to hold responsibility for problems that occur during the implementation process.

The same important point is that the economic benefits of recycling batteries are not high. Just like the charging pile industry, capital will be rushed when it rises, and once the profits are not as lucrative as expected, Omissions in management and other aspects will increase day by day. According to the relevant papers, the current cost of recycling 1 ton of lithium iron phosphate batteries is about 8,500 yuan, and the market value of recycling is only 8,000 yuan, which means that the company will lose money for every ton of lithium iron phosphate batteries recycled. Around 500 yuan. The technology and cost of ternary lithium-ion battery recycling are higher, because even if it is in a waste state, the chemical element activity is still very high. Needless to say, the use of trapezoids, the global leader in electric vehicles, Tesla, has stated that the efficiency of waste utilization is not high.

In general, the entire industry seems to be lively, but there are still many problems lurking. As far as the recycling policy itself is concerned, in fact, many overseas countries already have relatively mature Strategies, including recycling companies and car companies themselves are working hard for this matter. However, the relevant domestic policies may be slightly general, and it seems that there is no more effective solution for the time being. my country is currently the country with the largest car ownership, and the development of the new energy industry is also booming. I hope that in the future, there will be more effective ways to deal with this matter. According to the relevant plans for the development of new energy vehicles, it is estimated that by 2020, the production capacity of pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles will reach 2 million, and the cumulative production and sales will exceed 5 million. With the huge incremental space, with the end of the service life of power lithium batteries, there will be a large number of power lithium batteries scrapped from electric vehicles. How to deal with these batteries has become a major problem faced by the industry. In terms of density and safety, Rao Mumin, deputy general manager of Shenzhen Waterma Battery Co., Ltd. and dean of the research institute, said in an interview with the first electric network that, in fact, As early as 2012, in order to explore the routes and methods for the secondary utilization of power lithium batteries, the company built a 3MW lithium iron phosphate lithium ion battery energy storage power station using retired electric vehicle power lithium batteries, laying a foundation for the cascade utilization of waste power batteries.了基。 The foundation.

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