Japan builds the world's first lithium battery submarine

by:CTECHi     2021-08-04

Not long ago, the launch of Japan’s first and the world’s first lithium battery submarine 'Huanglong' has aroused great attention from all walks of life. Some Japanese netizens and Japanese media claimed that the submarine's technology is 15 years more advanced than that of Chinese submarines of the same level. So what is the actual situation?

Japanese submarine technology is not only first-class in Asia, but also first-class in the world. Of course, there is still a slight gap compared with China. Japan's submarine technology has a high degree of autonomy. Since the 1950s, it has designed and built conventional submarines by itself. As Japan's shipbuilding technology is relatively developed, special steel, power systems, fluid dynamics, torpedo technology, sonar technology, electronics and fire control technology All are in the forefront of the world, coupled with the support of the United States and Western countries over the years, Japan has built several generations of conventional submarines, all of which are world-leading. For example, for example, vortex tide level, tidal tide level, spring tide level, and relative tide level.

The Canglong class is the latest generation of conventional submarines in Japan, with a length of 85 meters and an underwater displacement of 3,300 tons. It is one of the largest conventional submarines in the navies of various countries in the world. In the Chinese Navy Type 032 missile test submarine (with a full-load displacement of 6,628 tons underwater). The Canglong level has a high level of informatization, with a total staffing of only 65 people. The Canglong class uses a highly stealthy hull design. In the design, out of noise reduction considerations, a relatively smooth and streamlined hull is adopted. The Canglong class follows the Oyster-class leaf-rolled boat type. The hull structure is mainly single-hull structure, and the bow and stern are double-hull structures. The composite structure hull can reduce the drainage port on the hull, which helps To reduce fluid resistance and noise during navigation. In addition, the Canglong-class hull is covered with the latest rubber anechoic tiles, and the cabin and turbine equipment are installed on the floating raft damping base, together with the X-shaped tail rudder and 7-blade large inclined propeller designed for low noise. The navigation noise is around 105 decibels, which is lower than that of the Russian-made Kilo-class 636 submarine known as the 'oceanic black hole'. The above-mentioned integrated noise reduction technology is very similar to the latest Type 039B submarine of the Chinese Navy.

Japan claims that 'Canglong class submarine is the world's largest tonnage and best performance conventional submarine, equipped with special materials that can absorb sound waves, and has the world's highest level of stealth.' Japan plans to build 13 Canglong-class submarines by 2023, and 9 of them are currently in service. The Canglong class has some inherent disadvantages, such as insufficient reserve buoyancy. The reserve buoyancy of the boat is only 600 tons, which is too small for a submarine with a displacement of 4,200 tons. However, China's 039B submarine uses single and double composite shells, and its reserve buoyancy can reach more than 1,000 tons, which is very important for the anti-sinking performance of the submarine in fierce wartime.

Not long ago, the media broke the news that the first seven of Japan’s latest Canglong conventional submarines all used inferior steel provided by Kobe Steel. When the Canglong class was built The NS-110 high-strength steel used is said to have an ultimate diving depth of more than 500 meters. But afterwards, it was discovered that some of the steel's durability and strength indicators were forged and used on the Canglong-class submarine. Maybe something went wrong during the mission.

The first gimmick of the Canglong-class submarine, the most eye-catching thing is the AIP power technology. Its power system has four VS-275R Stirling closed-cycle engines imported from Sweden. The endurance of the Canglong-class AIP is about 11,200 kilometers, which means that the Canglong-class can reach a speed of 12 kilometers per hour, which is about 6.5 knots. Sailing underwater for 38 days without the need to surface.

Starting from the 11th Phoenix Dragon of the Canglong class, AIP power is no longer used, and lithium batteries are used to replace traditional lead-acid batteries for the first time. This is an epoch-making revolution in submarine technology. . After the use of lithium batteries, the battery volume is significantly reduced, the weight is reduced, and the energy density is increased several times. The capacity of lithium batteries is more than twice that of lead-acid batteries, and the charging time is greatly shortened. Continuous sailing for 98 hours. Lithium batteries do not require liquid electrolyte and are easy to maintain. However, although the power of the lithium battery is large, the endurance is not good, and the total range of the Phoenix Dragon will decrease.

Since the lithium battery can be used on the submarine, it shows that Japan has initially settled on the submarine AIP lithium battery technology. The actual effect is still to be observed after service. This can be regarded as a way for us. Up. Because the risk of using lithium batteries in conventional submarines is very high, there is a big potential risk of using lithium batteries. They are prone to heat and fire and are more sensitive to accidental collisions. The 'Huanglong' uses lithium batteries produced by Yuasa Technology Company (Yuasa). Whether the related processes have been improved and whether the safety has been improved is currently unknown. The most important thing here is the power management of the battery. Don't catch fire and explode and you will win. I wish them a happy underwater blasting!

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