electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

by:CTECHi     2020-01-20
Abstract objective to review the existing evidence on e-cigarettes (e-cigarette)
To understand the potential impact of product features and design features on individual users and public health.
Methods systematic literature retrieval was conducted in 10 reference databases, and the retrieval time was October 2013.
A total of 14 articles and documents were included in this analysis, and 16 patents were included.
Results a large number of disposable and reusable electrons
Cigarette product options exist, representing a wide range of changes in product configuration and component functions. Common e-
Cigarette components include aerosol generators, flow sensors, batteries, and nicotine-
Contains the storage area of the solution. e-
Cigarettes currently include a number of interchanging components that enable users to modify the properties of the transported aerosol, so that the product is \"effective\" as a nicotine delivery product \". Materials in e-
Cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics.
Some materials may be transported by air and have adverse effects on health.
Several studies describe e-
Brand of cigarettes.
Patent applications include new product functions and electronics designed to affect aerosol properties
Cigarette efficiency for transporting nicotine.
Although e-
Cigarettes have basic design, engineering changes, and user modifications that lead to differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-
Cigarette Aerosol may include harmful and potentially harmful components.
Risk of battery explosion and exposure to electronic devicesliquid (
Especially children.
It is also a concern.
Further research will strengthen the current understanding of basic e-commerce
Design and operation of cigarettes, production and processing of aerosol and functionality.
Standardized e-commerce
A cigarette testing system should be developed for product comparison.
Purpose to review existing evidence on e-cigarettes (e-cigarette)
To understand the potential impact of product features and design features on individual users and public health.
Methods systematic literature retrieval was conducted in 10 reference databases, and the retrieval time was October 2013.
A total of 14 articles and documents were included in this analysis, and 16 patents were included.
Results a large number of disposable and reusable electrons
Cigarette product options exist, representing a wide range of changes in product configuration and component functions. Common e-
Cigarette components include aerosol generators, flow sensors, batteries, and nicotine-
Contains the storage area of the solution. e-
Cigarettes currently include a number of interchanging components that enable users to modify the properties of the transported aerosol, so that the product is \"effective\" as a nicotine delivery product \". Materials in e-
Cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics.
Some materials may be transported by air and have adverse effects on health.
Several studies describe e-
Brand of cigarettes.
Patent applications include new product functions and electronics designed to affect aerosol properties
Cigarette efficiency for transporting nicotine.
Although e-
Cigarettes have basic design, engineering changes, and user modifications that lead to differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-
Cigarette Aerosol may include harmful and potentially harmful components.
Risk of battery explosion and exposure to electronic devicesliquid (
Especially children.
It is also a concern.
Further research will strengthen the current understanding of basic e-commerce
Design and operation of cigarettes, production and processing of aerosol and functionality.
Standardized e-commerce
A cigarette testing system should be developed for product comparison.
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes)
Includes sub-categories of a wider range of products described as personal vaporizers (PV)
Advanced Personal Vaporizer (APV)
Or an electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS).
These products have a series of designs.
Full description of E-
In order to assess the potential risks and benefits associated with cigarette use, cigarette design features are necessary.
Methods systematic literature retrieval was conducted in October 2013 to determine the research related to e-commerce
Cigarette and electronic nicotine delivery systems.
10 Reference databases (
Knowledge Network, postgraduate entrance examination, SciFinder, traditional tobacco Literature Library, Embase, EBSCOhost, Espacenet, Google Scholar, Google patent and US Patent Office)
Search using a set of relevant search terms used individually or in combination.
The search terms include the following: \"heat exhaustion\", \"battery burning\", \"battery explosion\", \"Lithium battery explosion\", \"Electronic Nicotine device\" or \"electronic nicotine delivery system\" or\"
\"Cigarettes\" or \"electronics\" and \"Cigarettes \".
Article or patent to consider use (
Authorization and application)had to (1)
Write in English; (2)
Public release; and (3)
Part or all of the treatment works design or operation, or lithium battery fire or explosion.
Search generated a total of 296 electrons.
Cigarette items or documents that meet the inclusion criteria.
Title and summary of the article (
When the details provided by the title are insufficient)
Correlation screening is then performed.
In addition, thousands of battery and patent documents have been found;
About 100 documents and 460 patents related to battery operation were screened.
Overall, the search received 54 articles and 28 patents
A text review, including a manual search for a reference list of selected articles, to identify other related publications.
Following the full-
Text reviews, 14 and documents and 16 patent documents are considered to be directly related to this analysis.
Articles and patent literature were published between 2004 and 2013.
The effectiveness and intensity of each study was determined based on a qualitative assessment of the depth and breadth of the analysis, uniqueness and relevance to engineering issues.
Other documents considered for review include conference presentations/posters, reports not published in peers
National and international standards and government reports.
Three documents from online sources or meeting minutes were cited.
Two websites offering e-commerce
In addition, information on cigarette design and operation is cited.
Although not peers
These websites and documents provide valuable insights into product design and operations.
Basic design and operation of scientific reviews-
Cigarettes are usually similar in size to traditional cigarettes, in a way similar to graphic design.
Common components of most electronic products
Cigarettes include aerosol generators, flow sensors, batteries and Solutions (or e-liquid)storage area (see figure 1).
Download the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure1 typical
Cigarette configuration.
This shows the Wick/heater as an aerosol generator, with electronically saturated gauze
Microprocessor liquid (optional)
Control operation and LED (optional)
Imitate the burning coal. e-
Cigarettes are currently classified as disposable or reusable.
The disposable device does not have a rechargeable battery and cannot normally be recharged.
They may have a lamp. LEDs (LED). The e-
Liquid containers or cartridges can be separated from aerosol generators or nebulizers;
A combination of a nebulizer and a cartridge called cartomizer.
Electronics currently sold
Cigarettes usually have an aerosol generator with metal or ceramic heating elements wrapped around the Wick beam.
All kinds of materials can be used in e-commercecigarette.
They include metals, ceramics, plastics, rubber, fibers and foam.
Some materials may be transported by air and may adversely affect health. Although e-
Complex range of cigarettes, the first one described below-generation e-
Cigarettes: users use email
Start the cigarette of the airflow sensor.
The airflow sensor detects pressure changes and prompts the power to flow to the LED and heating elements. The e-
The liquid saturates the Wick by capillary action, and then atomizes by the heating element.
Atomization droplets of 6 e-
The liquid then flows into the user\'s mouth and lungs.
Detailed operation and components of some advanced e-commerce
Before puffed, the consumer can choose to determine the functional adjustment of the heating element temperature, air flow rate or other functions.
Figure 2 outlines a more detailed but typical electron
Cigarette operation cycle.
This cycle is initiated by a single or multiple sensor response and/or using a button.
8 start sensor (s)
It may be acoustic, pressure, touch, capacitance, optics, Hall effect or type of magnetic field.
9, 10 sensors (s)
And/or buttons start the power flow of pumps, heating elements, LEDs, and other components.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that sensors or buttons may provide the ability to extend the duration of puffs.
Implementation of the download in the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure2 Basic Electronics
Cigarette operation.
This flow chart outlines the basic operations and functions of converting and delivering e-commerceliquid-based aerosol. The cartridge (or cartomizer)
Sometimes, there are air holes on the battery holder that help to facilitate the flow of air needed to inflate, while also controlling the pressure drop.
However, there may be multiple uses for air holes.
For example, the organization for European and international standards (ISO)
Standard for ink pen caps that require air holes to prevent children-
Choking hazards associated with the pen cover.
The generation of aerosol usually includes three stages: pretreatment, aerosol generation and post-treatment.
The first phase involves the transportation of e-commerce
The liquid of the aerosol generator.
Capillary action through the Wick is the first major means of use
May be most of the current e-commerce
Control the delivery of electronic cigarettes
Liquid of air suspension elements.
Other possible transport mechanisms include pumps, nozzles and diaphragm that are programmed or mechanically controlled.
The pump can be twisted, piston, eccentric or spiral and powered by electrostatic, piezoelectric, magnetic-sensitive, heat-shrink, or hot bubble processes.
1,13 in addition, a fluid jet, micro-grid, micro-etching screen, or a transport method of a transparent film are also provided.
Another method of 1,9 e
The delivery of liquid to the aerosol generator involves micro
Pump on micro mechanical and electrical system (MEMS).
Small pumps and/or nozzles/nozzles can provide electronics for specific programmed quantities and combinations-
The liquid of the aerosol generator.
1 or consumers can drop electronics directly
Put the liquid on the heating element before puffed.
The second phase of aerosol treatment involves the generation of aerosol, which involves (1)
Heating, where e-
As mentioned above, the liquid is in contact with the heating element; and/or (2)
Ultrasonic vibration generators or other mechanical equipment are machined to produce aerosol through mechanical dispersion.
13, 15 at least one e-cigarette (cigar)
Introduce overseas markets to produce 0 unheated aerosol using ultrasonic vibration. 5–1.
Particle size of 5 μm, another particle size described in the patent document combines heating and vibration elements.
In addition to heating and ultrasonic vibration, 16, 2, e-
Cigarettes may contain a microcomputer system that uses pumps and nozzles (jets)
Or ultrasonic piezoelectric elements used to produce aerosol.
Possible arrangement of heating elements includes straight line, multi-helix, cluster, nozzle, laser or combination of components.
The coil arrangement can include the Wick and the coil cover (bridged)or no covers (
Disconnect for \"Drive).
The resistance of the heating element, the voltage of the material and its ends determine the current and the temperature of the element.
The temperature and temperature duration of the heating element affect the aerosol properties.
Factors such as component degradation and dirt will also affect the temperature of the heating element.
The final stage of aerosol treatment occurs in the process of aerosol reaching consumers through the central air channel.
Unless the aerosol is heated, its temperature decreases with the occurrence of flow and condensation.
Large droplets concentrated inside the central air channel can be removed from the channel and then discarded or re-processed into aerosol.
To further simulate traditional smoking, the appearance of side-flow smoke is designed as an electronic device
Cigarette Design using pump.
Microprocessor, programmable logic units, integrated circuits and other electronic components can be added to some electronic products.
Cigarette products.
Electronic components can be used to power the elements and display and/or record operating status parameters such as battery life, daily usage frequency, average usage period and safety warning along with the LCD screen.
However, the microprocessor may also have additional functions, such as controlling the Integrated Microcomputer system (
Pump and/or motor)
Provide the number or concentration of products for specific programming.
A patent describes the integration of Bluetooth communication protocol based on fluid type and user preference and multiple smoking software programs.
Microprocessor and storage chip in 13 e-
Cigarettes raise concerns about the collection and use of personal privacy information.
The microprocessor can facilitate the collection of consumer data through Bluetooth wireless or universal serial bus for dissemination to third parties (USB)
The interface when the battery is charged.
9 data may include personal information of smokers (
Gender, age, address)
, The terrain of smoking and possible health-related data.
9, 18 Another concern is the ability of software and microprocessor to manipulate nicotine delivery and software viruses directly or secretly. Some e-
When connected to the power supply via USB cable, cigarettes can be used.
Also, some electronics
Permanent rechargeable batteries can be used for cigarettes (a manufacturer-
Sealing device supplied), a non-
Rechargeable battery or user-
Replaceable battery (
Rechargeable or nonrechargeable).
Portable charged suitcases for remote e-commerce
Some brands charge for cigarettes. Nickel-cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal-hydride (NiMh), lithium ion (Li-ion)
Alkaline and lithium polymer (Li-poly)
Lithium manganese (LiMn)
Batteries can be used to power electronic devices. cigarettes.
19 performance considerations several studies describe the e-
Same brand/cigarette brand within the product and compare e-
Cigarettes of traditional cigarettes.
The performance parameters studied included pressure drop, airflow, aerosol products and puffs.
Trtchian et al20 compares eight brands of traditional cigarettes with four brands of e-cigarettescigarettes.
When comparing the first 10 puffs of each brand, four e-
Cigarette brands need a much higher average vacuum than conventional cigarettes to produce aerosol density.
In the same study, when five brands (
Add other brands such as Trtchounian)of e-
Cigarettes are tested and when each brand smokes, the vacuum required to produce standardized density aerosol is increased.
The number of puff needs to be increased from a brand\'s low of 24 ± 12 to 12 ± 26 and 11 ± 71 for the high-end two brands.
The amount of powder puff for complete exhaust varies from electronic device to device
Cigarette tests of different brands range from 30 ± 43 to 313 ± 115 high.
Williams and Talbot followed up on their collaboration with trtchian ian and tested four different brands of electronics
Cigarettes that include copies of two brands.
21 analysis of the first 10 puffs shows that for a given e-
Cigarettes, but different brands.
The investigators analyzed the ventilation or airflow of each brand;
They came to the conclusion that good e-with half of the air hole area and pressure drop-
Tested cigarettes
The researchers concluded that \"the airflow rate required to produce aerosol varies greatly in e-commerce
Cigarette brands, usually higher than the airflow rate required to produce smoke from tobacco
Contains cigarettes.
\"21 Furthermore, they conclude that the standard test protocol commonly used with conventional cigarettes does not apply to e-commerce
\"Electronic cigarettes, instructions
Cigarette laboratory testing will require its own standard procedure, which has not yet been developed \".
When comparing the results of the two studies, 21 test protocols and normalization were a concern.
In each study, the number of puffs was associated with the volume and duration of puffs.
Investigators produced aerosol at a specific density.
This indicates that density will drive the powder volume of all electronic products. cigarettes.
However, satiety may be the driving factor;
Therefore, the normalization of nicotine delivery/absorption may be another way to determine an appropriate test protocol.
The impact of smoking topography on the results and conclusions of the study is not clear and deserves further study.
The sanecdotal evidence for design and aerosol production considerations suggests that storage tanks with greater capacity, higher coil voltages and drip configurations appear to be consumer innovations adopted by manufacturers. The e-
Cigarette Forum is a potential source of information on new trends in e-commerce
Design, use and maintenance of cigarettes.
Electronics currently sold
Cigarettes may have thousands of interchanging parts that change the properties of the delivered aerosol;
The connection adapter can further enable interchange.
At present, some advertising functions of e-commerce
Including advanced power cigaretteson activation (multiple-button click-on feature)auto shutoff (safety feature)
Short circuit and over current protection (safety feature)
Variable voltage range (eg, 3–6u2005V in 0. 1u2005V increments).
It seems that the variable voltage unit introduces the ability to increase the temperature of the heating element.
Subsequently, an increase in the temperature of the heating element increases the temperature of the air containing the aerosol and increases the rate of aerosol production.
Warm air can hold more electronic devices
Liquid quality per unit of air volume.
In addition, the temperature of the heating coil may change the particle size of the aerosol.
5 refer to trtchian et al20, Zhang et al22 notes, \"if the steam generator can produce a different range of particle sizes, or the particle sizes change over time, the steam technology will
\"Additional research is required to determine if the rise in coil temperature will significantly increase the electrons
Available Liquid mass and/or altered aerosol particle size.
According to Etter et al23, particle size affects absorption and directly affects aerosol toxicity.
Two studies measuring e-
Size of cigarette aerosol particles.
Ingebrethsen and others found undiluted e-
Cigarette Aerosol has particle diameter in the range of 250-450 nm, and particle density concentration is about 109 km/h particles/m3.
However, according to the same report, these emails
The number of cigarettes was slightly different from the 50-200 nm particle size pattern reported by Schripp et al in another study.
25 Zhang et al. constructed a device for determining the particle size distribution in vitro and concluded through testing, \"e-
The aerosol produced by Cigs and conventional reference cigarettes has a generally similar particle size in the range of 100-600 nm.
In 2012, Pellegrino and others compared particulate matter (PM)
Aerosol from Italian brand e-
PM cigarettes for traditional cigarettes.
The data shows that the fine and ultra-fine pm concentration of conventional cigarettes is about 6-18 times higher than that of electronic cigarettes.
Tested cigarettes
Limited number of patents (
Authorization and application)
A review was conducted to determine which new features are included in the products currently in the commercial market or in the potential market.
A patent describes a port designed to facilitate post-processing of accumulated condensate.
The following new features are described by Tucker et al in their patent application: diffuser (figure 3)
, Enhanced mixing;
Airflow diverter, which clearly allows the heating element to maintain the desired temperature, thereby optimizing the nicotine delivery with the intensity of the smoke outlet; multiple e-
Each has its own Wick heater;
Fragrance strips, adding fragrance to the outside of e-commercecigarette (
Or enter the aerosol);
And a movable screen with an opening to change the airflow, thus changing the pressure drop.
Liu describes multiple heating elements arranged in series or in parallel, where aerosol flows converge or remain separated.
In another patent application, Tucker et al described an advanced drip configuration.
Alarcon and Healy describe the broad communication and data collection potential of one of their patent applications (table 4).
Conley et al described breath, saliva, sweat, and tissue or cell analysis and passed information to healthcare professionals, as well as biometrics paired with specific users.
Li et al describe a feature that aims to transfer the aerosol particle size distribution to a series of smaller particles by impacting the aerosol on the surface.
Download the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure3 diffuser.
This figure shows multiple inclined openings that increase aerosol dispersion and oral contact.
Descriptive text in digital reference patent.
5, 19 download figureOpen in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 4 communication function.
The figure shows two-way data transfer between consumers, computers, packaging, social networks and stakeholders.
Descriptive text in digital reference patent.
9 Safety consideration of the impact of pollutants in the environment on safety issuesliquid or ‘e-
Juice \'and handling hazards associated with inadvertent skin contact.
Due to the lack of manufacturing standards and control, e-
The purity of the liquid is generally not guaranteed and testing of some products indicates the presence of hazardous substances.
Nicotine in E-
Liquid may be dangerous if handled improperly and in e-liquid. 31 Child-safe or child-
Safety lock for children (packaging resistant)
Like those on the lighter.
Correct guidance on the safe handling of e-commerce
Liquids can help mitigate these risks.
A patent discusses the use of biometrics and sensors to identify consumers by age;
This technology can prevent some children from using age screening. 29The use of e-
Cigarettes containing illegal substances are worrying.
A patent states that \"as long as the solution storage container is slightly modified, the device and connection structure of the present invention can be filled with conventional drugs used in the lung dosing device.
\"2. another patent states that the device can be used in conjunction with drugs, steroids, and the cannabis component, Thyl cannabinoids (THC)
And other substances.
29 part swaps are particularly worrying as when modifying a configuration using a third configuration, significant changes in performance, risk and security associated with a particular brand configuration can occurparty products.
A study showed that there were some changes in the performance of The cartomizer unit when the battery was exchanged with the same brand of battery.
In the same study, one study
When the part is exchanged with the other part, the cigarette stops producing aerosol (same model)unit.
In addition, brandspecific e-
The liquid box performs \"significantly better\" than the third in terms of aerosol generation\"
Party cartridges provided by suppliers.
Other issues relate to materials, aging, and dirt used during aerosol generation. e-
Cigarettes that produce nicotine vapor using a heating mechanism emit metal particles in the aerosol, and even nanoparticles that heat the composition of the coil, such as tin, iron, nickel and chromium.
3 lead, nickel and chromium of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Harmful and potentially harmful ingredients (HPHC)list’.
32. the safety of inhaling these metal particles and nanoparticles has not yet been studied, which may be a cause of concern.
The use of alternative aerosol generation mechanisms may mitigate some of these safety issues, although it is still uncertain whether these alternatives may also produce particle and nanoparticles emissions. Moreover, long-term e-
Correlation generation of cigarette performance and HPHCs has not been studied. As e-
Cigarettes are aging and contaminated, and the products they produce may change.
Automatic or manual heating element cleaning should be considered when designing. Many e-
Cigarettes use lithium batteries because they can store a lot of energy in a compact space.
However, the inherent properties of lithium batteries can pose a risk of fire and explosion.
Poor design, low use
Quality materials, manufacturing defects and defects, and improper use and handling can all lead to the so-called \"hot run\", so the internal battery temperature may rise to the point where the battery is on fire or even exploding.
33 The use of overcharge protection circuit, hot power off-
The shutdown and internal over-voltage release mechanism helps to prevent and reduce heat runaway.
34 additional scientific research is required to assess the security and effectiveness of e-commercecigarettes.
The topics for future research include the following: an incomplete understanding of the design and functionality of products currently on the US market.
Variable and increased voltage e-
Cigarettes seem to increase the concentration of nicotine.
35 higher voltage and other properties may introduce the ability to manipulate particle size and increase aerosol mass.
There is very little research on these functions.
Lack of knowledge about all materials involved in aerosol production.
The dangers associated with the use of batteries need further study.
The failure mechanism and frequency of burn, shock and explosion hazards are unknown.
Possible presence, functionality and capabilities of software, sensors and microprocessor incorporating e-commerce
Cigarettes are unknown.
It is not known what health or terrain data is being collected or how it affects or affects regulatory and health policies.
Software bugs are also unknown.
The lack of standardized test protocols affects the comparison between studies.
Standardized test protocol that allows meaningful testing, classification and comparison of emails
The results of cigarette testing will be a valuable research tool.
Product Lifecycle knowledge, degradation over time, third-
Performance and misuse of components required.
Basic design and operation-
Cigarettes are usually similar in size to traditional cigarettes, in a way similar to graphic design.
Common components of most electronic products
Cigarettes include aerosol generators, flow sensors, batteries and Solutions (or e-liquid)storage area (see figure 1).
Download the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure1 typical
Cigarette configuration.
This shows the Wick/heater as an aerosol generator, with electronically saturated gauze
Microprocessor liquid (optional)
Control operation and LED (optional)
Imitate the burning coal. e-
Cigarettes are currently classified as disposable or reusable.
The disposable device does not have a rechargeable battery and cannot normally be recharged.
They may have a lamp. LEDs (LED). The e-
Liquid containers or cartridges can be separated from aerosol generators or nebulizers;
A combination of a nebulizer and a cartridge called cartomizer.
Electronics currently sold
Cigarettes usually have an aerosol generator with metal or ceramic heating elements wrapped around the Wick beam.
All kinds of materials can be used in e-commercecigarette.
They include metals, ceramics, plastics, rubber, fibers and foam.
Some materials may be transported by air and may adversely affect health. Although e-
Complex range of cigarettes, the first one described below-generation e-
Cigarettes: users use email
Start the cigarette of the airflow sensor.
The airflow sensor detects pressure changes and prompts the power to flow to the LED and heating elements. The e-
The liquid saturates the Wick by capillary action, and then atomizes by the heating element.
Atomization droplets of 6 e-
The liquid then flows into the user\'s mouth and lungs.
Detailed operation and components of some advanced e-commerce
Before puffed, the consumer can choose to determine the functional adjustment of the heating element temperature, air flow rate or other functions.
Figure 2 outlines a more detailed but typical electron
Cigarette operation cycle.
This cycle is initiated by a single or multiple sensor response and/or using a button.
8 start sensor (s)
It may be acoustic, pressure, touch, capacitance, optics, Hall effect or type of magnetic field.
9, 10 sensors (s)
And/or buttons start the power flow of pumps, heating elements, LEDs, and other components.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that sensors or buttons may provide the ability to extend the duration of puffs.
Implementation of the download in the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure2 Basic Electronics
Cigarette operation.
This flow chart outlines the basic operations and functions of converting and delivering e-commerceliquid-based aerosol. The cartridge (or cartomizer)
Sometimes, there are air holes on the battery holder that help to facilitate the flow of air needed to inflate, while also controlling the pressure drop.
However, there may be multiple uses for air holes.
For example, the organization for European and international standards (ISO)
Standard for ink pen caps that require air holes to prevent children-
Choking hazards associated with the pen cover.
The generation of aerosol usually includes three stages: pretreatment, aerosol generation and post-treatment.
The first phase involves the transportation of e-commerce
The liquid of the aerosol generator.
Capillary action through the Wick is the first major means of use
May be most of the current e-commerce
Control the delivery of electronic cigarettes
Liquid of air suspension elements.
Other possible transport mechanisms include pumps, nozzles and diaphragm that are programmed or mechanically controlled.
The pump can be twisted, piston, eccentric or spiral and powered by electrostatic, piezoelectric, magnetic-sensitive, heat-shrink, or hot bubble processes.
1,13 in addition, a fluid jet, micro-grid, micro-etching screen, or a transport method of a transparent film are also provided.
Another method of 1,9 e
The delivery of liquid to the aerosol generator involves micro
Pump on micro mechanical and electrical system (MEMS).
Small pumps and/or nozzles/nozzles can provide electronics for specific programmed quantities and combinations-
The liquid of the aerosol generator.
1 or consumers can drop electronics directly
Put the liquid on the heating element before puffed.
The second phase of aerosol treatment involves the generation of aerosol, which involves (1)
Heating, where e-
As mentioned above, the liquid is in contact with the heating element; and/or (2)
Ultrasonic vibration generators or other mechanical equipment are machined to produce aerosol through mechanical dispersion.
13, 15 at least one e-cigarette (cigar)
Introduce overseas markets to produce 0 unheated aerosol using ultrasonic vibration. 5–1.
Particle size of 5 μm, another particle size described in the patent document combines heating and vibration elements.
In addition to heating and ultrasonic vibration, 16, 2, e-
Cigarettes may contain a microcomputer system that uses pumps and nozzles (jets)
Or ultrasonic piezoelectric elements used to produce aerosol.
Possible arrangement of heating elements includes straight line, multi-helix, cluster, nozzle, laser or combination of components.
The coil arrangement can include the Wick and the coil cover (bridged)or no covers (
Disconnect for \"Drive).
The resistance of the heating element, the voltage of the material and its ends determine the current and the temperature of the element.
The temperature and temperature duration of the heating element affect the aerosol properties.
Factors such as component degradation and dirt will also affect the temperature of the heating element.
The final stage of aerosol treatment occurs in the process of aerosol reaching consumers through the central air channel.
Unless the aerosol is heated, its temperature decreases with the occurrence of flow and condensation.
Large droplets concentrated inside the central air channel can be removed from the channel and then discarded or re-processed into aerosol.
To further simulate traditional smoking, the appearance of side-flow smoke is designed as an electronic device
Cigarette Design using pump.
Microprocessor, programmable logic units, integrated circuits and other electronic components can be added to some electronic products.
Cigarette products.
Electronic components can be used to power the elements and display and/or record operating status parameters such as battery life, daily usage frequency, average usage period and safety warning along with the LCD screen.
However, the microprocessor may also have additional functions, such as controlling the Integrated Microcomputer system (
Pump and/or motor)
Provide the number or concentration of products for specific programming.
A patent describes the integration of Bluetooth communication protocol based on fluid type and user preference and multiple smoking software programs.
Microprocessor and storage chip in 13 e-
Cigarettes raise concerns about the collection and use of personal privacy information.
The microprocessor can facilitate the collection of consumer data through Bluetooth wireless or universal serial bus for dissemination to third parties (USB)
The interface when the battery is charged.
9 data may include personal information of smokers (
Gender, age, address)
, The terrain of smoking and possible health-related data.
9, 18 Another concern is the ability of software and microprocessor to manipulate nicotine delivery and software viruses directly or secretly. Some e-
When connected to the power supply via USB cable, cigarettes can be used.
Also, some electronics
Permanent rechargeable batteries can be used for cigarettes (a manufacturer-
Sealing device supplied), a non-
Rechargeable battery or user-
Replaceable battery (
Rechargeable or nonrechargeable).
Portable charged suitcases for remote e-commerce
Some brands charge for cigarettes. Nickel-cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal-hydride (NiMh), lithium ion (Li-ion)
Alkaline and lithium polymer (Li-poly)
Lithium manganese (LiMn)
Batteries can be used to power electronic devices. cigarettes.
19 performance considerations several studies describe the e-
Same brand/cigarette brand within the product and compare e-
Cigarettes of traditional cigarettes.
The performance parameters studied included pressure drop, airflow, aerosol products and puffs.
Trtchian et al20 compares eight brands of traditional cigarettes with four brands of e-cigarettescigarettes.
When comparing the first 10 puffs of each brand, four e-
Cigarette brands need a much higher average vacuum than conventional cigarettes to produce aerosol density.
In the same study, when five brands (
Add other brands such as Trtchounian)of e-
Cigarettes are tested and when each brand smokes, the vacuum required to produce standardized density aerosol is increased.
The number of puff needs to be increased from a brand\'s low of 24 ± 12 to 12 ± 26 and 11 ± 71 for the high-end two brands.
The amount of powder puff for complete exhaust varies from electronic device to device
Cigarette tests of different brands range from 30 ± 43 to 313 ± 115 high.
Williams and Talbot followed up on their collaboration with trtchian ian and tested four different brands of electronics
Cigarettes that include copies of two brands.
21 analysis of the first 10 puffs shows that for a given e-
Cigarettes, but different brands.
The investigators analyzed the ventilation or airflow of each brand;
They came to the conclusion that good e-with half of the air hole area and pressure drop-
Tested cigarettes
The researchers concluded that \"the airflow rate required to produce aerosol varies greatly in e-commerce
Cigarette brands, usually higher than the airflow rate required to produce smoke from tobacco
Contains cigarettes.
\"21 Furthermore, they conclude that the standard test protocol commonly used with conventional cigarettes does not apply to e-commerce
\"Electronic cigarettes, instructions
Cigarette laboratory testing will require its own standard procedure, which has not yet been developed \".
When comparing the results of the two studies, 21 test protocols and normalization were a concern.
In each study, the number of puffs was associated with the volume and duration of puffs.
Investigators produced aerosol at a specific density.
This indicates that density will drive the powder volume of all electronic products. cigarettes.
However, satiety may be the driving factor;
Therefore, the normalization of nicotine delivery/absorption may be another way to determine an appropriate test protocol.
The impact of smoking topography on the results and conclusions of the study is not clear and deserves further study.
The sanecdotal evidence for design and aerosol production considerations suggests that storage tanks with greater capacity, higher coil voltages and drip configurations appear to be consumer innovations adopted by manufacturers. The e-
Cigarette Forum is a potential source of information on new trends in e-commerce
Design, use and maintenance of cigarettes.
Electronics currently sold
Cigarettes may have thousands of interchanging parts that change the properties of the delivered aerosol;
The connection adapter can further enable interchange.
At present, some advertising functions of e-commerce
Including advanced power cigaretteson activation (multiple-button click-on feature)auto shutoff (safety feature)
Short circuit and over current protection (safety feature)
Variable voltage range (eg, 3–6u2005V in 0. 1u2005V increments).
It seems that the variable voltage unit introduces the ability to increase the temperature of the heating element.
Subsequently, an increase in the temperature of the heating element increases the temperature of the air containing the aerosol and increases the rate of aerosol production.
Warm air can hold more electronic devices
Liquid quality per unit of air volume.
In addition, the temperature of the heating coil may change the particle size of the aerosol.
5 refer to trtchian et al20, Zhang et al22 notes, \"if the steam generator can produce a different range of particle sizes, or the particle sizes change over time, the steam technology will
\"Additional research is required to determine if the rise in coil temperature will significantly increase the electrons
Available Liquid mass and/or altered aerosol particle size.
According to Etter et al23, particle size affects absorption and directly affects aerosol toxicity.
Two studies measuring e-
Size of cigarette aerosol particles.
Ingebrethsen and others found undiluted e-
Cigarette Aerosol has particle diameter in the range of 250-450 nm, and particle density concentration is about 109 km/h particles/m3.
However, according to the same report, these emails
The number of cigarettes was slightly different from the 50-200 nm particle size pattern reported by Schripp et al in another study.
25 Zhang et al. constructed a device for determining the particle size distribution in vitro and concluded through testing, \"e-
The aerosol produced by Cigs and conventional reference cigarettes has a generally similar particle size in the range of 100-600 nm.
In 2012, Pellegrino and others compared particulate matter (PM)
Aerosol from Italian brand e-
PM cigarettes for traditional cigarettes.
The data shows that the fine and ultra-fine pm concentration of conventional cigarettes is about 6-18 times higher than that of electronic cigarettes.
Tested cigarettes
Limited number of patents (
Authorization and application)
A review was conducted to determine which new features are included in the products currently in the commercial market or in the potential market.
A patent describes a port designed to facilitate post-processing of accumulated condensate.
The following new features are described by Tucker et al in their patent application: diffuser (figure 3)
, Enhanced mixing;
Airflow diverter, which clearly allows the heating element to maintain the desired temperature, thereby optimizing the nicotine delivery with the intensity of the smoke outlet; multiple e-
Each has its own Wick heater;
Fragrance strips, adding fragrance to the outside of e-commercecigarette (
Or enter the aerosol);
And a movable screen with an opening to change the airflow, thus changing the pressure drop.
Liu describes multiple heating elements arranged in series or in parallel, where aerosol flows converge or remain separated.
In another patent application, Tucker et al described an advanced drip configuration.
Alarcon and Healy describe the broad communication and data collection potential of one of their patent applications (table 4).
Conley et al described breath, saliva, sweat, and tissue or cell analysis and passed information to healthcare professionals, as well as biometrics paired with specific users.
Li et al describe a feature that aims to transfer the aerosol particle size distribution to a series of smaller particles by impacting the aerosol on the surface.
Download the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure3 diffuser.
This figure shows multiple inclined openings that increase aerosol dispersion and oral contact.
Descriptive text in digital reference patent.
5, 19 download figureOpen in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 4 communication function.
The figure shows two-way data transfer between consumers, computers, packaging, social networks and stakeholders.
Descriptive text in digital reference patent.
9 Safety consideration of the impact of pollutants in the environment on safety issuesliquid or ‘e-
Juice \'and handling hazards associated with inadvertent skin contact.
Due to the lack of manufacturing standards and control, e-
The purity of the liquid is generally not guaranteed and testing of some products indicates the presence of hazardous substances.
Nicotine in E-
Liquid may be dangerous if handled improperly and in e-liquid. 31 Child-safe or child-
Safety lock for children (packaging resistant)
Like those on the lighter.
Correct guidance on the safe handling of e-commerce
Liquids can help mitigate these risks.
A patent discusses the use of biometrics and sensors to identify consumers by age;
This technology can prevent some children from using age screening. 29The use of e-
Cigarettes containing illegal substances are worrying.
A patent states that \"as long as the solution storage container is slightly modified, the device and connection structure of the present invention can be filled with conventional drugs used in the lung dosing device.
\"2. another patent states that the device can be used in conjunction with drugs, steroids, and the cannabis component, Thyl cannabinoids (THC)
And other substances.
29 part swaps are particularly worrying as when modifying a configuration using a third configuration, significant changes in performance, risk and security associated with a particular brand configuration can occurparty products.
A study showed that there were some changes in the performance of The cartomizer unit when the battery was exchanged with the same brand of battery.
In the same study, one study
When the part is exchanged with the other part, the cigarette stops producing aerosol (same model)unit.
In addition, brandspecific e-
The liquid box performs \"significantly better\" than the third in terms of aerosol generation\"
Party cartridges provided by suppliers.
Other issues relate to materials, aging, and dirt used during aerosol generation. e-
Cigarettes that produce nicotine vapor using a heating mechanism emit metal particles in the aerosol, and even nanoparticles that heat the composition of the coil, such as tin, iron, nickel and chromium.
3 lead, nickel and chromium of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Harmful and potentially harmful ingredients (HPHC)list’.
32. the safety of inhaling these metal particles and nanoparticles has not yet been studied, which may be a cause of concern.
The use of alternative aerosol generation mechanisms may mitigate some of these safety issues, although it is still uncertain whether these alternatives may also produce particle and nanoparticles emissions. Moreover, long-term e-
Correlation generation of cigarette performance and HPHCs has not been studied. As e-
Cigarettes are aging and contaminated, and the products they produce may change.
Automatic or manual heating element cleaning should be considered when designing. Many e-
Cigarettes use lithium batteries because they can store a lot of energy in a compact space.
However, the inherent properties of lithium batteries can pose a risk of fire and explosion.
Poor design, low use
Quality materials, manufacturing defects and defects, and improper use and handling can all lead to the so-called \"hot run\", so the internal battery temperature may rise to the point where the battery is on fire or even exploding.
33 The use of overcharge protection circuit, hot power off-
The shutdown and internal over-voltage release mechanism helps to prevent and reduce heat runaway.
34 additional scientific research is required to assess the security and effectiveness of e-commercecigarettes.
The topics for future research include the following: an incomplete understanding of the design and functionality of products currently on the US market.
Variable and increased voltage e-
Cigarettes seem to increase the concentration of nicotine.
35 higher voltage and other properties may introduce the ability to manipulate particle size and increase aerosol mass.
There is very little research on these functions.
Lack of knowledge about all materials involved in aerosol production.
The dangers associated with the use of batteries need further study.
The failure mechanism and frequency of burn, shock and explosion hazards are unknown.
Possible presence, functionality and capabilities of software, sensors and microprocessor incorporating e-commerce
Cigarettes are unknown.
It is not known what health or terrain data is being collected or how it affects or affects regulatory and health policies.
Software bugs are also unknown.
The lack of standardized test protocols affects the comparison between studies.
Standardized test protocol that allows meaningful testing, classification and comparison of emails
The results of cigarette testing will be a valuable research tool.
Product Lifecycle knowledge, degradation over time, third-
Performance and misuse of components required.
Conclusion e-
Cigarettes have basic design, engineering changes, and user modifications that lead to differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks.
There seems to be a big difference in the performance of commercial products. e-
Cigarette Aerosol may include an FDA-defined HPHCs.
Risk of battery explosion and exposure to electronic devicesliquid (
Especially children.
It is also a potential concern.
Some security features that can enhance consumer safety do not seem to be widely used. Current e-
Through advanced aerosol production methods, cigarette properties are likely to increase the delivery of nicotine.
Patents indicate that new functions may further maximize aerosol properties and electrons
Cigarette efficiency for transporting nicotine. e-
Cigarette forums and websites provide information on current e-commerce
Cigarette use, misuse, innovation and concerns that may affect the commercial market.
Additional research will improve current understanding of basic e-commerce
Cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, data collection capabilities, sensor and software/microprocessor functions and loopholes, performance changes, lifecycle degradation, accidental use and user safety.
In addition, a standardized electronic
Cigarette testing protocols should be developed to allow product comparisons.
Although of great significance, the specific guidance for the development of standardized testing systems is beyond the scope of this article. e-
A special test protocol may be required for a uniquely designed cigarette.
This article complements our knowledge, which is the first comprehensive review of the literature related to e-commerce
The design features of cigarette products and their potential health consequences. e-
Cigarettes are highly engineered products, which vary greatly in terms of product configuration, components and safety features;
In addition, the flexibility of many e-commerce
The cigarette design allows users to modify.
This leads to cross
Product and interior
Product differences in aerosol production, nicotine delivery, and risk of potential product use make it difficult to assess the impact of e-commerce
Healthy cigarettes for individual users and the public.
Additional research is needed to determine the health consequences of e-commercecigarette use;
Standardized e-commerce
Cigarette testing system should be developed in order to promote cross
Product and interior
Product comparison.
The author thanks Elizabeth L. Durmowicz, M. D.
Mr. Deborah nevelf. B. A.
Mr. Paul AguilarP. H.
Dr. Thomas oz. D. , M. P. A. , and R.
Dr. Philip YeagerD.
Thanks for their support and help.
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There is no competitive interest.
Uncommissioned source and peer review;
External peer review.
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