Biology Labs, Activities, Videos, and Study Guides About Cells (Photosynthesis, Mitosis, Cell Organelles, and More)

by:CTECHi     2020-01-30
Biology is the study of organisms, including plants, animals and microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and native organisms.In biology classes, students usually learn about cells, tissues, organs, biology, genetics, ecology, animal behavior, and many other topics.Me and another teacher from our family Schoolop, co-Ten people who teach biology in high school study at home, 2011 in their teens-Academic year 2012.
The first unit we explored was cell biology.Refers to the study of cells.This includes the properties, structure, interaction with the environment, how to split, infiltration and diffusion, photosynthesis, etc.I have included some cell biology labs, activities and you on this page --We supplement our Holt biology text with test tubes and enrich our biological experience.
I also provide you with a few free learning guides on important information about cell biology.The students read from the text that \"Holt biology\" answered the chapter review questions and watched all kinds of creatures --Tube at home, working in various laboratories and hands at the same timeActivities about our cooperationop.(Students who have purchased the optional book \"creatures of each child\" also like to do extra hands-on operationsActivities at home.
In my opinion, handsActivities and laboratories have greatly enriched anyone\'s research on science!I created this page for students in biology class.While the textbooks we use have a lot of references, many of the resources on this page can be used without a copy of that book.Even if you are not my student, feel free to look around and see if something here is of interest or benefit to you!If you have a different textbook, just look up the sections on this page for any material you are currently learning (and other biology pages I have created ).
Most biology textbooks are very similar in terms of the types of information covered, although some textbooks do explore various topics more deeply than others.For example, almost all high school or university biology textbooks will cover ATP.You will find youtube on the ATP below!If you don\'t have a textbook at all, you can still look at YouTube, do the lab, read the study guide, and many links to visit other websites.
Have fun!Holt Biology -Holt college of biology has colorful photos and pictures.Most sections also provide one or more laboratories that are consistent with the text.The link will be taken to a page that shows the different formats (and prices) of this bio textbook ).
For example, if you like to use it on a CD, this is an option!Some of the labs mentioned in this unit about cell biology, and the rest of the course, will come from this book.The materials in the lab are easy to access and the lab is fun and fun too!This dvd was designed to accompany both hands.In the lab mentioned in Holt\'s biology textbook.
It goes through the lab step by step to show the student what he or she should do/see.Many laboratories provide close-up shots that students see in the microscope.Although the vast majority of our weekly labs are made up of real peopleIn the laboratory (including many laboratories not mentioned in the text), when we were unable to obtain the materials needed to complete the laboratory independently, we did use this DVD several times as a substitute for the laboratory.
This is my son\'s microscope.
It worked very well for him!He likes to use it, not only for formal lab work, but also to see a variety of other things in magnification!The three chapters of this chapter of Holt\'s biology textbook cover seven attributes common to all organisms, how biological achievements affect the world, and scientific methods.Do you know how to judge whether something is alive or not?What qualities do creatures have?1.7 attributes of life.2.Watch the following two YouTube\'s 7 properties about life.
(Watch the second video if you don\'t have enough time.3.Read the \"biology theme\" in Holt\'s biology text \".4.Answer the first review question found in the text.
On the first youtube below, we saw a chart with biological terms on it.When you watch the video, please pay attention to the order of the terms on the chart.We start with the smallest particles in the atom (subatomic particles, such as proteins and electrons) and get bigger and bigger until we reach the world level.
As we move from one level to another, this growing organizationFrom subatomic particles to atoms to molecules to the biosphere.Is the first part of you.The subway below is trying to get the audience to see.Another point in the video is that the key to life can be found somewhere between the molecular level and the cell level.
The second you-Tube continues to discuss the 7 attributes of life.Does biological research have any impact on our lives?Can science help solve the current problems facing the world?The field of conservation biology is working to protect our environment.They strive to maximize the use of Earth\'s resources, reduce waste, and protect animal and plant species and their habitats.
In 2003, biologists completed the positioning of human genes.This information may be used in medical research in the future.AIDS, cancer, genetic diseases and various diseases are currently under study.
1.
Read Section 2 in your text.
2.
Answer the second part of the review question found in the text.What methods do scientists follow when doing experiments?Ask a Question.Observe.Create a hypothesis.Experiment.Analysis results.Share the results.1.2.Read section 3 of Holt biology (or other texts) on scientific methods.
3.
Answer the review question.
1.
What life traits can be observed in pill worms?In discussing the components of scientific methods, Holt biology refers to a scientific study involving frogs and heavy rains.Below are two laboratories that are very similar to what is given in the text, but they use clear and easy-to-use Laboratoriesto-find materials.2.3.http://www.kwanga.Net/apesnotes/acid-rain-seed-lab...(To view the instructions for this lab, copy and paste the url above into your browser.
A brief overview of chemistry is covered in this chapter, including atoms, elements, bonded bonds, and ionic bonds.It also includes the properties of water, acid and alkali, polarity, cellular chemistry, chemical reactions, and enzymes.The iconic Bond refers to the bond in which an atom loses one electron to another.
Two or more atoms share the bonds of electrons.1.Iconic and bonded bonds.(To zoom in, click on the picture on the website.Note: Don\'t worry even if a box pops up asking about your email.
There is a link in the box that can take you directly to the graphics without having to give them your email.2.Read the first section of Holt\'s biology on \"The nature of matter.3.Answer the first review question found in the text.
4.
Watch the you-Under the tube on the iconic and bonded bonds.1.Observe the following you tube to understand the properties of water.2.Read the second part of the biology textbook about water and solution.
3.
Answer the review question in the second part.Organic compounds.Organic compounds are substances that contain carbon bound to hydrogen, oxygen, or other elements.Do you know that both graphite and diamonds are carbon?Think about how the different graphite is extracted from the diamond, the diamond is very hard and does not rub at all, the graphite is very soft and easy to rub onto the paper or skin.
A brief explanation is given as to why they are so different, although they are all the same elements.Our text discusses organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.ATP is also included in the text.ATP is something that stores energy in cells.
Answers.
And explain that ATP is produced by the mitochondrial of the cell.1.Read my brief introduction to the section above and if you wish, check out the link I provided.2.Watch below you tube for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
3.
Read \"cell chemistry\" in the text \".
4.
Answer the review questions in the text.
Enzymes are things that accelerate chemical reactions.1.What are enzymes and why do we use them in laundry detergent?2.Look at one or two of youThe tubes stand out on enzymes.
3.
Read \"energy and chemistry\" in our text \".4.Answer the review questions in the text.How does the enzyme work?This lab shows how enzymes in pineapple and detergent break down proteins in gelatin.Is the detergent with enzymes better than the detergent without enzymes?A Research Guide on the properties of enzymes, water, bonded and ionic bonds, acid and alkali.
Where two or more atoms share electrons.
(Electrons are used for both atoms.
Occurs where an atom gives one or more of its electrons to another atom.The iconic Bond produces ions.Ions are an atom or molecule that no longer has the same number of electrons as protons, because they either give up an electron or get an electron from another atom.(An atom usually has the same number of electrons as a proton.
It is a molecule with positive and negative electricity, not the same all the way.Because water is a polar molecule, other polar things dissolve well inside.Salt is a polar molecule that is easily dissolved in water.
Oil is not polar;This is why oil and water are not mixed.(Weak attraction) between a negatively charged hydrogen atom of a molecule and a positively charged hydrogen atom of another molecule.It means sticking together.\"In the case of water, cohesion is the attraction between water molecules.
Cohesion makes water drop.
This is caused by hydrogen atoms formed between molecules (in this case water molecules.Is the effect of condensation on the surface of the water.Cohesion allows the water to support something heavier than it, such as the water stri worm, or to carefully place some water face pins in a bowl.
Water also likes to stick to other things..Adhesion is the reason why water moves plant stems upwards.Adhesion also makes the surface of the water meter in the tube look a bit bowl-like because the water is stuck to the side of the tube.
The solution measures its acidity level in the range of 1 to 14.Substances with a small quantity (under 7 years of age), such as lemon and vinegar, are more acidic than substances with a larger quantity (over 7 years of age), such as soap and ammonia.Acid is acid, corrosive to metal, high concentration of hydrogen ions.
The alkali is slippery and the concentration of hydrogen ions is very low.Water is considered neutral with a pH value close to 7.It can be found in foods such as cereals, fruits and vegetables.
It\'s all simple sugar.
It\'s two carbohydrates that store energy.
It includes substances such as fat, steroids (including cholesterol), lipids and wax.Contains amino acids.There are 20 different amino acids in the protein.Can be found in all cells.Nucleic acid is composed of nucleotide.Nucleotide is a molecule that is connected together to form RNA and DNA.
The nucleotide is composed of phosphate, sugar and alkali.Like a rechargeable battery with a battery.It consists of one nucleotide and two additional phosphate groups.
Occurs when atoms form new chemical bonds or break old ones with other atoms...To help you remember which one is, think about the factory that makes the cloth.Cotton is like raw material.The machine that does something about cotton will be the chemical reaction in our analogy, and the beautiful cloth will be the final product.
Is the energy needed to start a chemical reaction.This is the reason why the reaction is pushed a little and the process continues......It\'s usually protein.............................Some enzymes are used for digestion, but some are used for various chemical reactions in cells.
Enzymes can be found in plants and animals.We add enzymes to the laundry detergent to help break down the stains on the clothes.It is an item that is decomposed by enzymes.
(Pocket in the enzyme) like a key, it can be locked.This chapter presents various types of microscopy, cell theory, structural features of cells, primary living cells, eugenic cells, plant cells, and animal cells.Above is a photo of a composite light microscope.
They are the types of microscope that are often used by middle and high school students.This type of microscope uses slides to preserve specimens under study.A light went up through the slide.Here is a picture of the electron microscope.
The electron microscope zoomed the image to 200,000 times the normal size.This microscope can be used to examine the structure within the cell.However, it does not apply to living cells because the samples must be placed in a vacuum chamber and the cells cannot survive in a vacuum.
Scanning electron microscopeScan an electron microscope to display 3d images of cells!They can be used to observe creatures.In 1665, Robert Hook published a book describing the observation of a microscope and a telescope.The title of his book is: micrographhia.For microscope observation, he used the microscope shown here.
The microscope was made by Christopher White.When Robert looked at a small piece of cork under a microscope, he recognized the small \"compartment\" he thought was a \"cell \".\"He was the first person to use the word\" cell \"to identify the microstructure.
There is no nuclear in the pronuclear organism, but there is.There is a division of the cells.According to youThe following tubes, \"zoning allows specialization.1.Watch the you-The tubes under the membrane, the separation of euro nuclear cells, and why the ratio between cell surface area and volume is important.
(But beware of giant amoeba!2.
Read the \"cell function\" in the text \".
When you read the features in the text about native and eugenic organisms, you may find it helpful to create charts.Tab 1 column: Prokaryotes and other Eukaryotes, add their features under each column when you read.3.Answer the questions in the text.1.Watch you first-The tube below is on the Web.
2.
Read the section \"cell organs\" in the text.3.Answer the questions in the text.4.5.Optional: look at one or two of your otherThe tube below (look for the thumbnail below you-Tube), and try to identify the various organs as shown.(Please note that there is no narration in these last two videos, so learn about the various cell organs before you watch them!Lab: do the lab on page 70 of Holt\'s biology textbook (using the Ilex dea plant on the petstore), or do the lab with cheek cells and onion cells.
Optional activities: create 3D models of cells using candy and gelatin (in self-sealing bags) or using dough or other items.Edible animal cell cakeMany others can be found through Google.This set of 100 slides consisting of plant parts, insect parts, animal tissues, etc.
In a beautiful wooden box.
Here are a few of the slides in this group: bee wings, earthworms, uglena, Frog Lungs, human hair, human blood, green mold, mosquito mouth parts, and the tip of the onion is shredded.Do you want to do slides yourself?This kit is equipped with slides, coverslips, Asian nail blue (as mentioned in The Onion cell lab I recommended above ).) And some other things.This includes slides and coverslips where you can clip your sample between them.
When you focus, the coverslip prevents your microscope lens from accidentally dipping into your sample.Will provide you with a wonderful review of the information in the third chapter of Holt biology.Using an earlier version of the microscope, it was noted that there were many small boxes in the cork.
The box he saw was the cell.
Observe the water in the pond with a microscope.He named the creature he saw as an animal.Describes how big it looks.Measure you can see something clearly.With two lenses, the magnification is up to 2000 times.
Objects up to 200 x can be enlarged, but cannot be used to observe organisms (because organisms cannot survive in vacuum used in electron microscopy.---Use an electron that generates an image on the screen.The specimen was stained with metal ions.The image is black and white, but color can be added with the computer.
---Displays a 3D image of the cell.
These samples are covered with a thin layer of metal.Like the transmission electron microscope, these images are black and white, but can be colored with a computer.3d images can also be created, but unlike scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunnel microscopy can be used to examine organisms.
1.
All living things are made up of cells.
2.
Cells are the basic unit of an organism.
3.
Cells come from other cells.
Smaller cells are better than larger cells.The larger cell surface area and volume are relatively low, and it is not possible to absorb enough nutrients through its cell membrane to support larger cells.(Remember the giant amoeba story in you tube?Remember the tissue folded in the box to provide a larger surface area?In short, cell organisms without nuclear.
There is no separation of Procar organisms.DNA rings can usually be found near the cell center.Enzymes and nuclei are lost in the cell.Long ropes like \"arms\" help the organism move.
Bacteria are an example of prokaryote.
have a nucleus.
They have different compartments or organs, each with their own work.DNA of cells.Make enzyme proteins (including enzymes ).Some nuclear bodies were found in the cell, and others were found on the rough ER.
(Er) is a membrane system that moves proteins and other things through cells.The rough ER contains the nucleus.The smooth ER does not contain a nuclear body.GorkyIn the Gorky, they are processed and packed again into sachets before proceeding.
Like a rechargeable battery of a battery.
Is a fiber net that helps to hold cells together and provides a framework for cells, just like a skeleton.Some parts of the skeleton also act as a highway to get information from the nucleus to the rest of the cell.There are three types of skeletal fibers: long actin fibers, microtubes (hollow tubes), and intermediate fibers (such as ropes ).
It\'s inside the cell.
All cells, including plant and animal cells, can be found.The cell membrane separates the cells from the surrounding environment and controls what goes in and out of the cells.What is the only thing in plant cells?Found only in plants.
It helps to support the cells and make them stronger.Use light energy (from the sun) to make carbohydrates (food) for plants ).In later chapters, you will learn more about the Mitochondrial.
It is a large space in the plant cells that store water and other things.This helps plant cells to be harder.This chapter on cells covers the movement of matter on the cell membrane.This includes a passive transport method for infiltration and diffusion, as well as an active transport method across membranes.
Passive transport means that the material does not need energy through the cell membrane.Energy is needed in active transportation.1.Look at you two.Diffusion and penetration of the tube below.
2.
Concentration gradient.
3.
Read \"passive transport\" in the text \".
4.
Answer the review questions in the text.
1.
Watch the youtube video below about active and passive traffic.2.Read \"active transfer\" in the text \".3.Answer the review questions in the text.Lab: do you do the egg lab shown in you-Tube video aboveNote: To prepare eggs for the lab, soak the eggs in vinegar for a day or two before using them during the activity.Or the fluffy raisin lab on page 12 of \"Biology of each child.
Also on page 10 and page 144, Biology of each child, there are lame potatoes with penetration.The spicy escape on page 8 of \"creatures of each child\" is about diffusion.Transport across film.Passive transport is the movement of a substance through the cell membrane without using any energy.
Diffusion, infiltration, ion channels and diffusion promotion are four types of passive migration.1.It is the random movement of particles in matter that moves something from a high concentration area to a high concentration area.The cell membrane is very picky about what it allows to pass through it, shutting out ions and most polar molecules, but allowing most small or non-polar molecules to pass through it.
Imagine the aroma of dinner cooking, starting in the pan, spreading to the entire kitchen, and even the entire house.This is the case with proliferation.Balance when matter is evenly distributed.2.Including water through the cell membrane.
In infiltration, water can flow out of or into cells.a.) There are usually various types of dissolved particles in the fluid.If the fluid outside the cell has more specific types of particles than the fluid inside the cell, in order to dilute the more concentrated liquid, the cell discharges the water from itself.
The solution that causes the contraction of the cell is called a high-permeability solution by infiltrating the water from the cell.(Remember the corn syrup and eggs at the beginning of the experiment on youtube?b.) If the fluid inside the cell has more particles than the fluid outside, water enters the cell in order to dilute the particles more.
A solution that causes water to enter the cell through infiltration, making the cell larger is called a low-sheet solution.(Remember the water that made the eggs bigger?c.Is a cell that does not change the volume of cells at all.
In this case, water enters and exits the cells at about the same speed.This happens when dissolved particles have the same concentration inside and outside the cell.3.Ions do not pass through the cell membrane without help, but can pass through it using ion channels.
The ion channel is a protein in the cell wall, where there is a hole or channel.Ions can pass through the channel, thus passing through the cell membrane.Ion channels are \"selectively infiltrated\", which means they can control things that pass through them.
Some ion channels are always open, while others have a door that can be opened and closed as needed.Imagine the tunnel through the mountains.For some reason, the tunnel has a guard that allows only certain types of vehicles to pass through.It\'s kind of like the ion channel.4.Is another passive mode of transport that allows things to pass through the cell membrane.
Molecules enter and attach to the interior of the carrier protein.Once they are attached to the inside of the carrier protein, the protein changes the shape, allowing the molecules to be released on the other side.Imagine the lock on the canal.The ship entered the lock.The Lock \"changes shape\" and opens on the other side, allowing the boat to pass through.
This is similar to promoting proliferation.Just like passive transport, active transport passes things through the cell wall.Unlike passive transport, active transport requires the use of energy (usually ATP) by cells.
Passive transport is only effective when moving from a higher concentration to a lower concentration (reducing the concentration gradient), but the opposite is true for active transport...Move objects from areas with lower concentrations to areas with higher concentrations.(Active transportation plays a \"counter\" role in the concentration gradient.
Passive traffic is a bit like distributing money on average between everyone (creating a balance ).Active transportation is more like \"rich people become rich \".Passive transmission reduces the concentration gradient and therefore does not require energy.
Think about floating easily on a raft or tube on a relaxing river.The current \"takes you\" to the river, and you don\'t have to paddle.It\'s like passive transportation.The activity migration is \"opposite\" to the concentration gradient, so it does require energy.
Consider the fact that you have to paddle a canoe (up) on the stream of the river ).It takes a lot of energy!It\'s like active transportation.Sodium and potassium pumps, endouration, and vomiting are three types of active transport.
a.
Only sodium and potassium are used.
It removes 3 sodium (Na) ions from the cell and allows 2 potassium (K) ions to enter the cell.Because there is usually more sodium outside the cell, and the pump continues to move more sodium outside the cell, the sodium potassium pump is contrary to the concentration gradient, meaning that the rich become richer.This is how it works: sodium ions in the cell enter the pump.
ATP provides some energy (thus becoming ADP ).The pump changes shape and opens on the other side, allowing sodium to flow out of the cell.When the pump is still on to the outside of the battery, potassium enters the pump and the pump changes shape againReopen inside the cell and potassium enters the cell.
b.
Is another way to move things into cells.
A substance enters the pocket on the cell membrane.The pocket is closed.The pocket then enters the cell further with the substance.c.It works almost exactly the same as endouration, but the process is the opposite of moving things (such as waste) out of the cell.
to the cell.
the cell.
Signaling molecules, such as hormones, transmit information from one cell to another.The receptor protein is usually located on the cell membrane, combined with the signaling molecule, passing information to the cell and allowing the cell to react to the signaling molecule (changed in some way ).Think about the phone or intercom.\"Receptors\" are like receivers.The \"signal\" goes to the \"receptor \".Therefore, signaling molecules work with receptor proteins to transmit information to cells.
Photosynthesis is the process in which plants make their own food.Cell respiration is the process of getting available energy from food.Both processes took place in the factory.Animals also breathe cells.Illuminate photosynthesisWhether it\'s a plant or an animal, the energy in the food we eat goes back to the sun.
In fact, the Sun is the source of energy for almost all life.Creatures that take energy directly from sunlight are called self-nutrients.They use energy to make organic compounds.
There are self-nutrients, such as creatures living in complete darkness near the underwater crater, that get energy from chemicals.Photosynthesis is the process by which most self-nutrients convert light energy into chemical energy.Different cultures are creatures that get energy from food.
Cell respiration is a process in which energy in food is transformed into ATP.As we learned in the previous chapter, cells use ATP for a variety of things, including active transport across membranes.Keep in mind that both plants and animals use cell breathing.
1.
Yes (if you don\'t remember chapter 2 ).
2.
Compare ATP with rechargeable batteries.
3.
Read \"energy and biology\" in the text \".
Watch the following you tube on ATP, along with the section titled \"ATP.4.Answer the review questions in the text.Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, algae and some bacteria convert energy from the sun into food (chemical energy.The energy of the sun is then passed on to almost all living things, because almost all food can eventually be traced back to plants.
(For example, owls eat mice, but mice eat plants, so owls get energy from the sun through food.In the process of photosynthesis, the carbon dioxide in the air, mainly from the roots into the water of the plant, the light from the sun works together to create sugar for the plant, for the plant to use, and to produce oxygen.In the first stage of photosynthesis, plant leaves absorb light from the sun.
What absorbs light is called paint.
Chlorophyll is the main pigment of photosynthesis.Tricrophyll absorbs blue and red light while reflecting both yellow and green light.That\'s why most plants are green for us.We see the light reflected to us.) In plant cells, an organ (organelle) within plant cells ).
There are some disk-like objects (class capsules) in the mitochondrial, which contain a cluster of pigments and an enzyme that breaks down water.When light shines on the pigment in the capsule, some of the energy of the sun is transferred to the electron in the pigment.The energy \"stimulates\" electrons, then starts to jump and passes down the so-called electronic transmission chain.
Water is broken down into oxygen and hydrogen ions, and plants release oxygen.The electrons released when water is split replace those that bounce along the electronic transmission chain.When the excited electrons go through the protein along the electron transfer chain, they power the pump, which pumps more hydrogen ions into the class.
When the concentration of hydrogen ions accumulated inside the capsule is greater than the concentration accumulated outside the capsule, some hydrogen ions leave the capsule through the carrier protein.This begins a reaction in which ATP (a \"rechargeable battery\" that holds the energy of the battery) is formed by ADP.At the same time, the excitation electrons transmitted along the electronic transmission chain produce reduced nitrogen two.
Nad and ATP produced at this stage of photosynthesis are used for the next stage of photosynthesis: Calvin cycle.The first part of photosynthesis (sometimes referred to as the first two parts) involves light and therefore is called light.Dependent responseThe Calvin cycle appears after a reaction that depends on light, and it does not depend on light because it does not use light.
The Calvin cycle is the most common form of carbon dioxide fixation, which means converting carbon dioxide into organic compounds (sugar ).During the Calvin cycle, carbon dioxide (CO 2) is converted to glucose (III-Carbon sugar molecules ).ATP and ATP created in the previous stage are used to power the reaction.
1.
Watch YouTube, \"photosynthesis\" and \"learn about plants-Here is photosynthesis.2.Read the second part carefully and study the chart in the book while reading.3.Watch the following youtube about photosynthesis ).
Use the pause button to slow down if you want to take notes and even just want to take a moment to absorb him.Also, keep in mind that you can easily replay parts (any number of times) by dragging the bar a little back ).Take the time to listen to this video.4.Answer the review questions in the textbook.
(But please feel free to stop this movie when he starts cell breathing, as we will discuss this in the next section!).When you read the sections in the text, remember that the neutral charged hydrogen atom has a proton and an electron.ion.For more information about ions, please refer to the first section of chapter 2 of the text.
Cell respiration is the process in which we convert energy from food into ATP (a \"rechargeable battery\" that stores energy.During cell respiration, glucose (sugar) and oxygen become carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.Glycolysis occurs in the cellular mass of the cell.
In this process, six carbon molecules of glucose are broken down into two three carbon acetone ions.ATP and nad are also formed.When oxygen is present, we get something, including 2 carbon-ethyl bases attached to coa a, thus becoming ethyl ketone.CoA.In the Krebs cycle that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, two major things happen.
The carbon in acetone produced during Glycolysis is released as carbon dioxide, and the energy of pyrurate is stored as NADH and fadh2.The electron transport chain is located in the endometrium of the Mitochondrial.The electrons emitted by NADH and FADH2 are transmitted along the electron transport chain, resulting in hydrogen ions being pumped out of the endometrium (to the space between the endometrium and the outer membrane ).
When the positive charge of the hydrogen ion accumulates in this external area, the ion begins to return to the internal compartment through the carrier protein, producing ATP in the process.This ATP stores energy for organisms (whether plants or animals), releasing energy as needed.At the same time, electrons transmitted along the electron transfer chain are combined with oxygen and hydrogen to form h20.
1.
Watch youtube below.
I would suggest looking slowly, pressing the pause button as needed, and/or dragging the bar back some to replay the section.Take notes and try to fully understand what he is saying before you proceed.2.Read \"cell breathing\" in your Holt textbook \".
(If you feel you really understand it well from youtube, feel free to skip the section of the text.3.Answer the review questions in the text.This photo shows two of our labs.One is photosynthesis, and the other is cellular respiration.In order to observe photosynthesis, we put the small branches of the algae into the test tube.
We put some tubes in front of the bright lights, others under the table further from the lights, and several others were covered with foil, so they didn\'t receive any light at all.After about 30 minutes, there are oxygen bubbles at the top of the tube in bright light.These plants are undergoing photosynthesis!There are no bubbles in the other two groups.
Young people put 2 packs of yeast, 6 tablespoons of sugar and warm tap water in empty water bottles.Next, they put a balloon on the opening of the bottle.The balloon is full of carbon dioxide and it didn\'t take long to get up and show us that yeast is eating sugar (participating in cell breathing) and releasing carbon dioxide.
\"Biology of each child\" has several great laboratories related to photosynthesis and cellular respiration.1.What happens to plants that don\'t receive any light?--Darkness Below.2.Would you like to see the starch in the leaves?--Food Producers.
3.
Plants release carbon dioxide during cell respiration.-Plants Breathe.4.Want to know more about the pigment of leaves?--Leaf Colors.5.In \"independence\" you will see signs of breathing.
It uses the branches of brommol mol blue and ilodia.Here are some unique teaching strategies about the electronic transport chain and how ADP becomes ATP.The sun is the main energy source for all life on Earth.
Plants get energy directly from the sun.
Animals get energy from plants or other animals that eat plants.Photosynthesis is the process of converting the energy of light into chemical energy (food.Self-nutrients are organisms that make their own organic compounds (foods) using the sun (or chemicals in the environment.
Creatures who have to look for food rather than make their own food are called different nutrients.To help you remember self-growth factors and ISO-growth factors, think about it: \"auto\" in self-growth factors means that they will be done automatically.But \"he\" in the alien nutrition means \"he\" has to look for his food.
Paint absorbs light.
Plants contain both chlorophyll (green pigment) and carrot-like (orange and yellow pigment, etc ).).The main pigment of photosynthesis is chlorophyll.Chlorophyll can be found in the cystic membrane in the mitochondrial in leaf cells.
Oxygen, the air that animals breathe, is released as a by-productProducts of photosynthesisThis occurs at the beginning of the electron transport chain, because water molecules are divided into hydrogen ions and oxygen, thus providing electrons and hydrogen ions (both of which are needed for photosynthesis), releasing oxygen into the airWhen light is absorbed by the chlorophyll, the electrons in the chlorophyll become \"excited\" and begin to move down along the electron transport chain.This is the beginning of photosynthesis.The Calvin cycle is the next cycle in the process of photosynthesis.Fixing carbon dioxide means converting carbon dioxide into food (organic compounds), which is exactly what Calvin\'s cycle does.
During the Calvin cycle, carbon dioxide became three-Carbon sugar molecules (food ).The rate of photosynthesis is affected by various environmental conditions such as temperature, light and carbon dioxide concentration.Use the photos in the book to see if you can track the steps of photosynthesis.
If you need help, please refer to my notes in Part 5.2 above, and/or Mr.Anderson posted photosynthesis again on youtube.Cell breathing is the process of getting energy from food.
Although only self-nutrients perform photosynthesis, both self-nutrients and non-nutrients use cell respiration to convert food into energy they can use.Energy is stored in the form of ATP.This energy is then available to the cells.Although ATP can also be made without oxygen, oxygen contributes to the production of ATP.
Aerobic exercise is the process of using oxygen.No oxygen is needed.There are three stages of cellular respiration: Glycolysis (breakdown of glucose), the cycle of Kreb (sometimes also known as the citric acid cycle), and the electron transfer chain.The final product of cell respiration is ATP (energy) and water.
In order for organisms to grow, heal wounds, replace old cells, and multiply, cells must be able to divide.This is how new cells and creatures are made!A cell can split into two cells in a different way.1.) Native organisms (single-cell organisms, such as bacteria, without nuclear or organ) that breed through a reproductive mode called binary fission ).
Asexual sexual reproduction involves only one parent.The new object created is genetically the same as its parents.2.) Cell division to allow organisms to grow, heal, or replace old cells in eukaryotic organisms (organisms with nuclear cells, such as animals, plants, algae and fungi.
These cells go through the process of filament division, producing cells like their mother cells.3.New creatures can also be created.This requires a process that is different from the split.Division is the process of cell division between the parent\'s egg and sperm.
The new cell is not the same as the parent cell.No matter what type of cell division occurs, the cell must replicate its DNA before splitting.1.Watch youtube below on DNA.2.Read \"chromosomes\" in your biological text \".
3.
When you arrive at the section about the reproduction of E. coli cells, watch youtube below.It is rather short and clearly shows the process of binary fusion.Then continue to read the text.4.Answer the review questions in the text.Cell cycle refers to the different stages that a eugenic cell experiences.
Cells use part of their time for division and part of their time for doing other things.The sequence of cell experiences (which takes part of the time to do regular work and the rest of the time to prepare for division or actual division) is called the cell cycle.1.If needed, watch the 2 YouTube s in the cell cycle below.
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Read the cell cycle in your bio-text.
3.
Answer review questions in your text.
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Watch Paul Anderson\'s video on the split (below ).2.Read the text.3.Answer the review questions in the text.4.Like when they\'re apart?(After browsing that web page and reading a short introduction, click start homework \".If you\'re not sure.And identify different stages of some cells.
A handout is provided (in the link above) that determines what the cells look like at each stage.The animation of silk division and cell division.Cell cycle and cell divisionThe DNA contains our genetic information, which can be found in the nucleus of the cell, or in the loop of the cell.
It tells the cells what proteins they make.Before any type of cell division, it is necessary to copy its DNA.Genes are part of DNA.As Bill Nye said in the video, \"This is a specific piece of DNA.
\"There are thousands of genes on the DNA molecule.Chromosomes are long DNA molecules wrapped around proteins.What\'s the difference between DNA and chromosomes?Sex chromosomes determine the gender of a new baby (boy or girl ).
Among humans and many other animals, if a baby gets X from her father, she becomes a girl.If the child gets Y from his father, he will be a boy.All other chromosomes unrelated to the determination of sex are called homologous bodies.
In order for cell division, it is necessary to copy its DNA.After copying the DNA, there are two staining cells on each chromosome.The chromosome is connected by a filament.
The dye monomer is a precise copy of each other.They contain exactly the same genetic material.In the process of filament division, these staining monomer will be divided into two cells with the same genetic information.
The staining monomer is different from the homologous chromosome.Homologous chromosomes are pairs of chromosomes that match each other in somatic cells.Each pair comes from a father, one from a mother.
They are chromosomes of the same type (for example, they all contain genes of eye color), but do not necessarily contain the same allele (a gene that may have blue eyes, another gene that may have brown eyes ).They are similar in shape, size and genetic content, but not necessarily the same.They are not copies of each other, unlike the dyed monomer.
The homologous chromosome is not connected to the filament.The reason we see them side-by-side on chromosome patterns is because someone arranges them in this way on the chart.Bacteria and other pronuclear organisms are divided by binary fission.
Binary fission is very fast and does not require many steps to allow bacteria to breed quickly.First, the cell copies its DNA.Then, by pinching in the middle, the cells are divided into two.A cell that is split by a filament.Cell cycle is the cycle that cells experience during growth and division.
The first three parts of the cycle (G1, S, and G2) are called interperiods.G1 is part of the cell\'s longest-staying cycle.Cells grow in this part of the cycle.If the cell meets certain conditions (such as large enough, healthy enough), the protein allows the cell to enter the S phase and start copying the DNA of the cell.
G2 -There is more growth here.
The next stage is a split.
This is where DNA is divided into two parts.Cell division is the stage in which the cell is divided into two new cells.When something goes wrong and the cells start to split quickly in an uncontrolled way, cancer happens.
(Chart in reading.
Be able to describe the steps of the split while looking at the picture.Prophase -In the first stage of silk division, the spindle forms and the nuclear membrane disappears.(The spindle is a tubular fiber and central grain that helps the chromosomes move to the opposite side of the cell at a later stage of filament division.
Metaphase -In the second stage, the chromosomes are arranged continuously.The spindle fiber connected to it.Anaphase -In the third phase, the spindle fiber pulls the chromosomes to the opposite side of the cell.Telophase -In the fourth stage, a nuclear cladding is formed around each group of chromosomes, and the spindle fibers disappear and the chromosomes are untied.
The next stage of the cell cycle is cellular division.This is where the other parts of the cell (cellular) are separated into two new cells.Since plant cells are different from animal cells, because plant cells have cell walls, this part of cell division is also slightly different.
A cell plate is formed in the midline of the divided plant cells.Then a cell wall is formed on both sides of the cell plate.The embryo is an egg that has been fertilized.
It is a somatic cell because it has a set of chromosomes from the egg and another set of chromosomes from the sperm.Chromosome grouping is a graph showing chromosomes (pairs) arranged from maximum to minimum.Each pair has a number, the first pair gives the largest pair, the second pair gives the second pair, and so on.
As mentioned above, chromosome typing is performed by cutting photos of splinter cells and arranging their chromosomes.Chromosome grouping helps to understand the chromosomes that exist in an individual, because it allows you to see if a certain pair of chromosomes is missing, or if there are three specific chromosomes, not two.It is called non-separation when this happens.
When the chromosomes are not separated in the way they should be, there will be non-separation, which means that a new mating will get both the chromosomes and the other mating.When a game (sperm or egg) that accepts two chromosomes (because they are not properly separated) is combined with a normal game, all three will be the ending of the baby...Which chromosome is too much!For example, if a person accepts three of chromosome 21, not just two, they have Down syndrome.
In the next lesson, you will learn more about non-separation and Down syndrome on youtube.Cell cycle and filament DivisionComments?Questions?What videos, labs, research guides or other cell biology resources do you find helpful!?Do you know the other bio resources I should add on this page?You will find a guestbook at the bottom of this page for you to comment and ask questions
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