an introduction to lithium batteries
This will not change any time soon.
Global electricity consumption is booming, smartphones, tablets and electronics
Readers are becoming more and more common.
In addition, with the continuous growth of the renewable energy sector, batteries have also been applied in the field of energy storage.
Many new technologies have been developed by engineers and scientists to meet our storage needs, but no one seems to establish themselves as the ultimate technology.
Flywheel, compressed air and energy storage are strong competitors in the power grid.
Expand storage at the same time as lithiumion, nickel-
Cadmium and nickelmetal-
The battery competes for portable electrical storage.
At the end of the day, we still don\'t find the best way to store electricity.
The technology and potential of lithium batteries will be discussed in this paper.
Until 1990 nickelcadmium (NiCad)
The battery is actually the only option for rechargeable batteries.
The main problem with these devices is the high temperature coefficient.
This means that performance drops when the battery is heated.
In addition, cadmium is one of the main elements of the cell, expensive and unfriendly to the environment (
Also used on film panels). Nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH)and lithium-
Ion became a competitor to NiCad after 90.
Since then, there have been a surprising number of technologies in the market.
In these lithium-
Ion batteries are a promising candidate for a wide range of uses. Lithium-
Hundreds of applications, including electric vehicles, pacemakers, laptops and military microgrids, use ion batteries.
They are extremely low maintenance and energy density.
Unfortunately, there are some serious drawbacks to commercial lithium-ion batteries.
They are very expensive and fragile and have a short life span in the depths
The future of many emerging technologies, including electric vehicles, depends on improvements in battery performance.
The Amiya battery is an electrochemical device.
This means that it converts chemical energy into electric energy.
Rechargeable batteries can be converted in the opposite direction due to the use of reversible reactions.
Each battery consists of a positive pole called a cathode and a negative pole called an anode.
The electrodes are placed in the electrolyte and connected by an external circuit that allows electronic flow.
The early lithium battery is a high temperature battery with a molten lithium cathode and a molten sulfur anode.
These hot-charging batteries operate at a temperature of about 400 degrees Celsius and are first commercially available at 1980 s.
However, the electrode seal proved to be a serious problem due to the instability of lithium.
Ultimately, temperature problems, corrosion, and increased ambient temperatures slowed the adoption of molten lithiumsulfur cells.
Although this is still a very powerful battery in theory, scientists have found that some energy density needs to be traded for stability.
This leads to lithiumion technology. A lithium-
Ion batteries usually have graphite carbon anode and metal oxide cathode with Li ion as the main body.
Electrolyte from lithium salt (
LiPF6, LiBF4, LiClO4)
Dissolved in organic solvents such as ether.
Since lithium reacts violently with water vapor, the battery is always sealed.
In addition, in order to prevent short circuit, the electrodes are separated by porous materials that prevent physical contact.
When the battery is charged, the lithium ion is embedded between the carbon molecules in the anode.
At the same time, lithium ion and electrons are released at the cathode.
The opposite happens during discharge: Li ions leave the anode and move to the cathode.
Since the battery involves the flow of ions and electrons, the system must be a good electrical conductor and an ion conductor.
Sony developed the first lithium battery in 1990 with lithium cobalt oxide cathode and carbon anode.
In general, lithium-ion batteries have important advantages, leading them in many applications.
Lithium is a metal with the lowest molar mass and the largest electric potential.
This means Li.
The energy density of ion batteries is very high.
The typical lithium battery potential is 3. 6V (
Lithium cobalt oxide-carbon).
In addition, their self-discharge rate at 5% is much lower than that of NiCad batteries, which are usually at 20%.
In addition, these cells do not contain dangerous heavy metals such as cadmium and lead.
Finally, the lithium battery has no memory effect and does not need to be recharged.
This makes them less expensive to maintain compared to other batteries.
Unfortunately, there are several limitations to lithium-ion technology.
First of all, it is expensive.
Average cost of a Li-
The ion battery is 40% higher than the NiCad battery.
In addition, these devices require protection circuitry to maintain the discharge rate between 1C and 2C.
This is the source of most static charge losses.
In addition, although lithium-ion batteries are powerful and stable, their theoretical charging density is low compared to other types of batteries.
Therefore, improvements to other technologies may make them obsolete.
Finally, they have a much shorter cycle life than a NiCad battery, a longer charging time, and are very sensitive to high temperatures.
These problems have sparked interest in other chemicals such as lithium. air, lithium-
Polymer and lithiumiron.
Since I don\'t have time to go through all of these devices, we will give a brief introduction to lithium-air batteries.
In these systems, Li is oxidized at the anode, releasing electrons through external circuits.
Li ions then flow to the cathode, reducing oxygen in the cathode and forming intermediate compound lithium peroxide.
In theory, this allows for a truly reversible reaction that improves the performance of lithium
Deep air battery
However, like lithium batteries, these batteries have a very short life span.
This is due to the formation of oxygen free radicals that break down the organic electrolyte of the battery.
Fortunately, two lithium.
Jung and Others Independently developed air batteries in 2012.
A research group from Rome and Seoul, as well as Peter Bruce, who led a group at St. Bruce
Andrews, seems to have solved the problem.
Both sets of batteries experienced about 100 charge and discharge cycles, but did not lose most of their capacity.
During the test, Bruce\'s equipment lost only 5% of its capacity.
The energy density of the battery is also higher than that of the lithium ion battery.
This is a sign that the future of energy storage may lie in the powerful, resilient lithium-air chemistry.
However, we must first overcome the problems of durability, cost and weight.
Although new lithium battery chemicals are being developed and sold, lithium batteries are still at the top of the food chain.
As mentioned earlier, due to its energy density, this technology is generally considered the first choice for electric vehicles and electronic devices.
Tesla\'s sports car is equipped with no less than 6831 lithium-ion batteries.
The batteries are divided into 69 packs and are able to move the vehicle from 0 to 60 mph in 3 hours. 9 seconds.
Just in case you want to know, it\'s exactly 6831 times.
Also, if you read this on your laptop, it is likely to be powered by a lithium battery.
At present, the main disadvantages of lithium batteries are easy to aging, especially when heating.
You may have noticed that the life of laptops and mobile phones has deteriorated dramatically in a few years.
This is largely due to aging.
This problem makes the technology unsuitable for backup and gridscale power.
Ion batteries compete for energy storage projects with alternative technologies such as heat, Flywheel and compressed air storage.
Most of these facilities are in California.
The Li battery of Silent Power is used to suppress the Power fluctuation of Sacramento, and one has been installed by Green Smith.
5 MW grid
Ion batteries throughout the state.
In addition, AES Energy Storage has or is installing 76 MW of lithium battery capacity worldwide and is under development with a capacity of 500 MW.
The main benefit of this technology is that we understand it well and have immediate resources to make it work.
In large projects, lithium
Ion batteries are the most successful at sites with serious space limitations or minimal maintenance capabilities.
In the near future, it seems that lithium-ion technology will continue to dominate many applications.
Lithium batteries are a mature concept, unlike some other technologies that have been closed in the lab all the time.
The emergence of electric vehicles and the surge in demand for electronic products will undoubtedly have a positive impact on the industry.
Unfortunately, all the good things are over.
Analysts predict that the technology will lose some of its competitive advantage once emerging technologies such as aluminum come oution, zinc-
Bromide and lead
There is carbon emissions on the market.
For example, on the topic of lithium-ion batteries in storage applications, Lux Research says the following: \"Li-
Ion batteries developed for transport applications are energy-intensive storage devices.
Fixed storage items pay little attention to this indicator, resulting in the waste of the value of the gridtied Li-
Ion battery system.
Fast-growing technologies with equal or superior performance metrics, significant cost reductions, and higher resource availability will dominate most grid storage markets in the coming years.
\"Although they are unlikely to be used in many grid-scale storage projects, Li-
In our future, ion batteries will certainly play a great role.
With the concept maturing and the popularity of equipment, their high costs may fall.
A study by McKinsey & Company found that a 1/3 reduction could be achieved through economies of scale alone.
In any case, lithium-ion batteries must strive to maintain their current advantages.