safer cycling in the urban road environment: study approach and protocols guiding an australian study

by:CTECHi     2020-01-25
Most of Australia\'s research on bicycle safety has focused on behavior, with little focus on the impact of urban transport environments on bicycle safety.
If cyclists are to be safe and to achieve more cycling engagement goals, it is necessary to have a better understanding of the urban transport system and the improvements needed to create a safer cycling environment.
This proposed study will use existing bicycle collision data as well as unique bicycle exposure data to develop road infrastructure prototypes to improve the safety of cyclists and to evaluate these prototypes in bicycle simulators
The study will be conducted in two cities in Australia, Perth and Melbourne, as there is a strong policy to promote cycling in both cities.
Two methods of data collection will be adopted :(1)in-
Investigation of deep collision of injured riderand (2)
Video footage of cycling through unnatural bike research
Injured by bike
The discovery of both methods will be used to develop a new urban road design prototype, which will be used in a safe environment, namely, a bicycle simulator and a driving simulator, using the bicycle and the driver\'s
This study will identify solutions to reduce road trauma risk by designing and evaluating a safer environment for cyclists, and it is important to support this alternative mode of transport, thereby contributing to reducing traffic
Strengthening sustainable economic and social ties.
Background most of Australia\'s research on bicycle safety focuses on behavior, with little focus on the impact of urban transport environments on bicycle safety.
If cyclists are to be safe and to achieve more cycling engagement goals, it is necessary to have a better understanding of the urban transport system and the improvements needed to create a safer cycling environment.
This proposed study will use existing bicycle collision data as well as unique bicycle exposure data to develop road infrastructure prototypes to improve the safety of cyclists and to evaluate these prototypes in bicycle simulators
The study will be conducted in two cities in Australia, Perth and Melbourne, as there is a strong policy to promote cycling in both cities.
Two methods of data collection will be adopted :(1)in-
Investigation of deep collision of injured riderand (2)
Video footage of cycling through unnatural bike research
Injured by bike
The discovery of both methods will be used to develop a new urban road design prototype, which will be used in a safe environment, namely, a bicycle simulator and a driving simulator, using the bicycle and the driver\'s
This study will identify solutions to reduce road trauma risk by designing and evaluating a safer environment for cyclists, and it is important to support this alternative mode of transport, thereby contributing to reducing traffic
Strengthening sustainable economic and social ties.
Background: The importance of cycling to achieving sustainable transport and national health goals is highly recognized by national and international governments.
1-3 bicycles are an environment-sustainable mode of transportation that can reduce vehicle congestion, waste gas pollution, improve travel time and improve health when replacing cars.
4 people who often ride bicycles are unlikely to be overweight and obese --
Related diseases, including heart disease, diabetes and stroke, and improved mental health.
In Australia, the popularity of cycling is increasing, and the participation rate of cycling has reached its highest level in more than a decade.
In 2011, an estimated 4 million Australians (18%)
Bike the previous week and 8. 5 million (39. 6%)
I rode a bike last year.
Despite the many benefits of cycling, cyclists are physically vulnerable road users, especially when they share roads with motor vehicles.
While the number of bicycle participants in Australia has increased, serious bicycle injuries have also increased.
8, 9 most cyclists have crashes in urban road environments, and crashes involving motor vehicles are the most serious consequences for cyclists.
The risk of death for cyclists is 4.
Cyclists are five times more likely to be seriously injured than car users.
Compared to all other non-vehicles, the number of collisions with the vehicle increased by 6 times
Type of vehicle bicycle collision.
In Australia, most of the deaths from cycling are caused by a motor vehicle (86%)
16. serious injuries (75%)17 crashes.
These accidents cost Australian communities billions of dollars a year (
Calculate with 2006 values).
Most cyclists have crashes in urban settings, a large part of which occur at intersections.
So far, a lot of research has been done on how to strengthen the urban environment to improve the safety of cyclists in the European context, which has led to significant improvements in road design and infrastructure.
Road networks, including cyclists, including bicycle infrastructure that separates cyclists from motor vehicles, are considered key to the success of bicycle participation and cycling safety in many European countries.
19-21 although few measures have been implemented in the United States to improve bicycle participation and bicycle safety, a state in Portland supports the adoption of a safe bicycle environment through bicycle modifications
Inclusive infrastructure.
Most of Australia\'s research on bicycle safety has focused on behavior, with 24-26 years not paying much attention to the impact of urban traffic environment on bicycle safety.
Compared with many European countries, Australian land use planning has more in common with the United States.
This is an important issue to consider when adapting international examples to Australia\'s road environment.
At present, infrastructure construction to improve bicycle safety has achieved mixed success.
The driver\'s desk 27 did not observe the painted bike box at the intersection, and the bike lane is usually located next to the parallel parking space, which puts cyclists at risk of opening the door.
28 if cyclists are to be safe, further understanding of the Australian transport system and the improvements needed to create a safer cycling environment are critical and by 2016 the participation of bicycles will be achieved safely.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to recommend modifications to the urban road environment to reduce the number of car crashes for cyclists.
The specific objectives of the study are (1)
To describe the cause of bicycle crashes in urban road environments ,(2)
Identify urban road environmental features that increase the risk of a cyclist\'s crash ,(3)
Develop prototypes of road infrastructure to improve the safety of cyclists and (iv)
Evaluate the validity of the prototype in the bicycle simulator.
A unique feature of this study is its multi-disciplinary approach to bicycle safety.
This study will use in-
Deep bike crash survey and innovative natural cycle approach to generate unique data sets for collisions
Participation and non-participationcrash-
The experience of cycling.
Comparison of two bicycle groups (crash-
Participation and non-participationcrash-involved)
We will expand our understanding of the factors that lead to the risk of a cyclist\'s crash and injury, and guide the development, testing and implementation of effective road design features and bicycle riding facilities.
This approach represents a fundamental shift in bicycle safety methods.
By matching the behavior and collision experience of cycling with the actual road environment, the result will be
Personal and social costs of bicycle injuries.
Transforming roads to accommodate cyclists is expensive and any investment must provide maximum security and mobility for all road users.
The analysis of the existing bicycle collision data and the results of the proposed natural bicycle study will inform the prototype of the new road design.
These prototypes will be evaluated in both the bike simulator and the driving simulator.
A bicycle simulator will be built for this project to provide a safe laboratory environment for testing and evaluating road design prototypes suitable for safe bicycles.
This test will help to ensure that any changes in road space will achieve practical improvements in bicycle safety and maximize the financial investment benefits of transforming roads.
Bicycle safety and public health the recent increase in bike participation in Australia offers many benefits, but how to safely accommodate cyclists and drivers throughout the road network remains a major challenge.
This proposed study is essential to support the Australian government\'s goal of doubling bicycle participation rates between 2011 and 20161 by addressing infrastructure issues
Relevant safety issues and will provide evidence for the next step in bicycle safety.
Introduction of evidence-
Based on safer infrastructure and road design, including intersection design and operation, separate bicycles and vehicles by providing Wells
Connected circular networks, as well as measures to reduce speed in separating unrealistic environments, can provide the fastest and most effective measures to reduce the trauma of cyclists.
It is important that the study will have national environmental/social benefits.
Australia faces enormous environmental challenges, and car travel plays an important role in these challenges.
By identifying and proposing a safer environment for cyclists, this project will support this alternative mode of transport and help reduce traffic --
Strengthening sustainable economic and social ties.
The study will contribute significantly to strengthening preventive health care in Australia by promoting safer bike participation and improving key elements of population health.
It is found that a safer riding environment can increase the participation of riding and gain considerable economic benefits.
It is currently $13 for inactivity in Australia. 8 billion.
Daily bike increases for commuting and local trips can reach recommended activity levels and reduce costs.
29 compared with non
Cyclists, who often ride bicycles, take less sick leave for one day each year, which is equivalent to $61.
Businesses save 9 million a year.
29 except health-
Related cost savings, the Australian government predicts $13 billion in congestion
If the use of bicycles doubles by 2020, the associated costs will be saved.
30 bicycle safety and public health the recent increase in bike participation in Australia offers many benefits, but how to safely accommodate cyclists and drivers throughout the road network remains a major challenge.
This proposed study is essential to support the Australian government\'s goal of doubling bicycle participation rates between 2011 and 20161 by addressing infrastructure issues
Relevant safety issues and will provide evidence for the next step in bicycle safety.
Introduction of evidence-
Based on safer infrastructure and road design, including intersection design and operation, separate bicycles and vehicles by providing Wells
Connected circular networks, as well as measures to reduce speed in separating unrealistic environments, can provide the fastest and most effective measures to reduce the trauma of cyclists.
It is important that the study will have national environmental/social benefits.
Australia faces enormous environmental challenges, and car travel plays an important role in these challenges.
By identifying and proposing a safer environment for cyclists, this project will support this alternative mode of transport and help reduce traffic --
Strengthening sustainable economic and social ties.
The study will contribute significantly to strengthening preventive health care in Australia by promoting safer bike participation and improving key elements of population health.
It is found that a safer riding environment can increase the participation of riding and gain considerable economic benefits.
It is currently $13 for inactivity in Australia. 8 billion.
Daily bike increases for commuting and local trips can reach recommended activity levels and reduce costs.
29 compared with non
Cyclists, who often ride bicycles, take less sick leave for one day each year, which is equivalent to $61.
Businesses save 9 million a year.
29 except health-
Related cost savings, the Australian government predicts $13 billion in congestion
If the use of bicycles doubles by 2020, the associated costs will be saved.
30 overview of methodology and design studies this study will be conducted in four phases in Melbourne (
Total population of 4 people. 1 million)and Perth (
Total population 2. 2 million).
These cities have all been selected because they have recently adopted policies that vigorously advocate bicycles as a viable and sustainable means of transport, and there is an urgent need to look at providing innovation in strengthening road design and operations.
Two methods of data collection will be adopted :(1)in-
Investigation of deep collision of injured riders (Stage 1); and (2)
Video footage of cycling through unnatural bike research
Injured by cycling (Stage 2).
The results of these two methods will be used to develop new urban road design prototypes (Stage 3)
Unique Victoria and Western Australia will be tested in bike simulators and driving (Stage 4).
Figure 1 provides a schematic diagram of the four stages of the study and related objectives.
Download a schematic of our goals and research phases. In-
Research on deep bicycle collision (crash-
Ride a bike of people)
This phase involves the compilation of data from three prospective studies (
For 12 months)
The cyclist reported the accident to the hospital.
This is an efficient design because it uses a recently completed data (November 2011)cycling-
Related Trauma studies involving investigators.
The Alfred bicycle accident study in Melbourne recruited 145 adult cyclists to show Sandringham and Alfred Hospital (
Melbourne metropolitan area).
A second prospective study of 31 bicycle patients
Related Trauma, involving current investigators, based in Alfred and the Royal Melbourne Hospital (
Known as Melbourne-Alfred Study)
Just finished (January 2014).
In the second study, another 150 injured cyclists (
From Melbourne metropolitan area)
Recruitment using the same agreement as Melbourne-
Study of Sandringham.
A third prospective study,
Recruitment started in June 2014 for 12 months)
Will involve 100 cyclists
Related Trauma admitted to Royal Perth Hospital, Sir Charles Gardner Hospital, Joondalup Hospital and Fremantle Hospital (
Known as Perth research).
Of the three studies, a standard research plan (
Including study interview schedule)has been (
Or will be related to Perth-Study)applied.
All injured cyclists in Victoria were found after checking their admission records every day (
And/or Trauma Registry)
Their respective research hospitals.
Then a research nurse was given facial care. to-
The injured cyclist was interviewed during the hospital.
If the patient is discharged before contacting the research investigator, contact by phone to obtain patient consent and complete the interview.
Importantly, all protocols for collecting injury data are based on the collision investigation protocol used by the Australian National accident research center at Monash University Accident Research Center
Keep collecting real deep researchworld in-
Data on deep serious injuries since 2000.
Interviews were provided with demographic information, details of cycling, a description of the crash, events leading to the crash, and information after the crash.
The injury data is obtained from the review of the medical records and/or Trauma Registry (
Hospital in Alfred)
Including the type of injury and the severity of the injury (
Use the abbreviated injury scale)
Glasgow Coma Score, surgical report, CT scan report and care precautions-if available.
Significant environmental features, including the number, speed and composition of traffic at the site, type of road, speed limit for posting, number of lanes, sidewalks and verges, traffic control, visual impairment, adjacent land use, associated activity levels and patterns, andstreet parking.
The agreement currently implemented in Melbourne has been approved by the hospital ethics committee and the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Curtin (Perth)
It has also been recognized by human research ethics.
Research on natural riding (non-
Cyclists crash)
Natural data provides an objective record of the views of cyclists riding on the road. these data can be analyzed in various ways, including :(1)
Exposed and/or as a cyclist (2)
Determine the factors that lead to the crash.
Some researchers have extensive experience in conducting natural bicycle research, especially in determining factors that contribute to cycling --
Driver collision and proximity
Collision event.
24, 32, 33 in the proposed study this will be the first time that a naturalist approach will be used to investigate urban road design in bicycle accidents by comparing urban forms collected at accident sites and urban forms collected at non-accident sites role
People riding bicycles (
Exposure Data Selected by using video footage-
Natural data). Non-
Injured cyclists will be recruited nearby
Road collision location identified from the car
Research on deep bicycle collision
When cyclists stop at the crossroads, they are intercepted, and trained researchers identify themselves, describe the purpose of the study, and seek the participation and contact details of the bike (
Mobile phone number or email address, for example).
All riders who provide contact information will be tracked within 24 hours of roadside interception.
Each intercepted cyclist who agrees to participate in the study must not be injured in a bicycle accident 36 months prior to recruitment, which requires hospital treatment.
This requirement ensures that participants in the naturalist study are not involved in bicycle accidents, resulting in hospital stay during recruitment
Research on deep bicycle collision
Participants must be willing to have their bikes fitted with two cameras to record them at 7-day period (see figure 2).
A camera will be installed on the handlebar (forward view)
The second one will be installed under the seat (rear view).
The camera includes a global positioning system (GPS)
Data Recorder for recording bicycle movements (
Such as: latitude and longitude, speed, acceleration, braking)
All trips.
The camera includes lithium-ion rechargeable batteries that allow cyclists to record about 2 hours of video and GPS data without interruption.
Download figureOpen in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 2 camera installed before and after bicyle.
Everyone who rides a bicycle is in 7-
The day cycle will be analyzed.
The exposure data of bicycle enthusiasts will be layered according to the type of road they Travel (
Arteries, sub-arteries, collectors and local roads)
And randomly selected Road sites (
Defined as road 45 m)
Frequency matching will be performed according to the proportion of crashes (from the in-
Deep collision research)
It happened on various roads.
Once Road sites have been identified from video clips, the following data will be obtained from access to road sites or from records obtained from research partner organizations, namely volumes, speed and composition of on-site traffic, speed limit posted, number of lanes, sidewalks and verges, traffic control, visual impairment, use of adjacent land, level and pattern of related activities and on-street parking.
Sample size, data management and analysis in a total of 295 riders recruited by bike crash learning and Melbourne\'s Alfred-Alfred Study.
Using the same protocol in two studies in Melbourne, 100 injured cyclists from Perth (Perth Study)
Will be recruited.
A total of 395 non-
Injured by cycling (
295 from Melbourne and 100 from Perth)
Two cameras will be used to test their bicycles.
As mentioned above, randomly selected road locations will be determined from the footage taken in the study of naturalism.
Data from a total of 295 highway sites in Melbourne and 100 sites in Perth will be used to simulate changes in road sites (urban form)
Between sites where a collision occurred and no collision occurred.
The suggested sample size will ensure that we have sufficient capacity (0. 8)
Detection difference (
Proportional difference = 0. 15)
In the urban environment between where the accident occurred and where it did not occur.
Considering partial matching, the standard conditional multivariate logistic regression will be used in the data analysis (eg, road types)
Websites that have occurred and have not collapsed.
34 prototype development of safety cycle road design a kinetic energy management model using the results of early research (KEMM)
Will be applied when designing enhanced urban prototypes.
KEMM35 provides a systematic way to analyze the various elements and stages of a cyclist\'s collision: from the cyclist\'s exposure to the collision;
In the case of exposure, cyclists are at risk of a crash;
Cyclists will be exposed to potential kinetic energy and pass the resulting level of kinetic energy to cyclists, resulting in crash damage.
As mentioned above, collision and natural data will provide the basis for KEMM analysis, and the results of the study will provide a system
A wide compilation of factors leading to unacceptable levels of risk for cyclists.
The damage results after the collision of bicycles and motor vehicles are basically determined by the laws of physics and speed, the difference in quality, the trajectory of the vehicle, the separation of bicycles and cycles, and the angle of collision.
In order to develop urban road designs that meet basic safety principles and human injury thresholds, we will develop a safety system framework for cyclists that can improve the risk factors of injury to cyclists
The 36, 37 safety system framework regards the road system as a whole, identifies the specific needs of various road users, and creates conditions physically to minimize the consequences of fatal and serious injuries.
The framework combines the knowledge identified in physics theory and early stage of study, in particular the human limitations and the causes of collisions caused by existing design defects, this will enable us to identify unrecognized thresholds that will be violated if security systems are to be maintained.
Consultations will be held with designers, engineers and delegates of the cycling group to develop cycling
Security System Framework.
Urban/road designs developed in accordance with the above principles may create a strong environment that minimizes the risk of cycling.
Discussions will begin in the workshop environment using safer road design templates.
The template is based on the method of successful application in the development of safety junction design.
38 workshops will be organized with bike safety and road management-related stakeholders, road design experts, urban design and creative design, and partner organizations, given the findings highlighted in the previous research phase, identify potential design ideas.
The resulting design will be shortlisted according to the criteria defined by the workshop participants.
Standards can include aspects such as the level of safety that may arise from the design, objective and subjective safety, compatibility with existing road designs, ease of implementation and cost, impact on the environment and traffic capacity/operations.
The expected design can include elements such as the improved demarcation of the driving path of bicycles and vehicles, audible-
Tactile device, road mark, space separation of traffic flow (
Physical barrier using line marking or low profile)
And speed management.
The selected design will be made as a feature layout plan.
Through further stakeholder consultation
The table discussion will be taken to the final stage, a featured design that is considered to have the greatest potential.
The selected design will be developed and then tried using two simulators (
Cycling and driving).
Simulation evaluation (
Simulated riding and driving
Simulation Technology is an excellent and mature method for testing system.
Based on counter measurements and will be used to test the performance of drivers and cyclists of different prototypes (road designs).
The simulation of the prototype will be tested twice: once in the bike simulator with the aim-
As part of this study, it was built for the second time in the advanced driving simulator at the Monash University Accident Research Center.
These simulation technologies will provide a platform for evaluating selected performance measures, including (
But not limited)
Bicycle/vehicle-
Based on measurements, including mean and SD of lateral positions, mean velocity and velocity distribution close to critical events and reaction time.
Bicycle/driver eye movements assessed using the FaceLab system, including object detection time and fixed duration, provide a more theoretical hypothesis test related to the attention strategies adopted by road users.
Subjective data collected through postride/postdrive interviews on bicycle/driver perception of road design and understanding of required behavior.
Five simulation studies will be conducted, each consisting of 25 participants from Victoria and Western Australia.
Found this sample size enough to detect changes caused by road infrastructure
Operation-based in the simulator. 39 Between-
The theme design will be primarily used to provide a more representative behavioral response in cases involving rare events, since the benefits of exposing participants to a large number of rare events in a short period of time are questionable.
39 the crash location determined in Phase 1 will be used to identify the location type (
Intersection/middle block)
The location of the accident and the situation of the accident.
The study will be conducted in four phases in two Australian metropolitan areas: Melbourne (
Total population of 4 people. 1 million)and Perth (
Total population 2. 2 million).
These cities have all been selected because they have recently adopted policies that vigorously advocate bicycles as a viable and sustainable means of transport, and there is an urgent need to look at providing innovation in strengthening road design and operations.
Two methods of data collection will be adopted :(1)in-
Investigation of deep collision of injured riders (Stage 1); and (2)
Video footage of cycling through unnatural bike research
Injured by cycling (Stage 2).
The results of these two methods will be used to develop new urban road design prototypes (Stage 3)
Unique Victoria and Western Australia will be tested in bike simulators and driving (Stage 4).
Figure 1 provides a schematic diagram of the four stages of the study and related objectives.
Download a schematic of our goals and research phases. In-
Research on deep bicycle collision (crash-
Ride a bike of people)
This phase involves the compilation of data from three prospective studies (
For 12 months)
The cyclist reported the accident to the hospital.
This is an efficient design because it uses a recently completed data (November 2011)cycling-
Related Trauma studies involving investigators.
The Alfred bicycle accident study in Melbourne recruited 145 adult cyclists to show Sandringham and Alfred Hospital (
Melbourne metropolitan area).
A second prospective study of 31 bicycle patients
Related Trauma, involving current investigators, based in Alfred and the Royal Melbourne Hospital (
Known as Melbourne-Alfred Study)
Just finished (January 2014).
In the second study, another 150 injured cyclists (
From Melbourne metropolitan area)
Recruitment using the same agreement as Melbourne-
Study of Sandringham.
A third prospective study,
Recruitment started in June 2014 for 12 months)
Will involve 100 cyclists
Related Trauma admitted to Royal Perth Hospital, Sir Charles Gardner Hospital, Joondalup Hospital and Fremantle Hospital (
Known as Perth research).
Of the three studies, a standard research plan (
Including study interview schedule)has been (
Or will be related to Perth-Study)applied.
All injured cyclists in Victoria were found after checking their admission records every day (
And/or Trauma Registry)
Their respective research hospitals.
Then a research nurse was given facial care. to-
The injured cyclist was interviewed during the hospital.
If the patient is discharged before contacting the research investigator, contact by phone to obtain patient consent and complete the interview.
Importantly, all protocols for collecting injury data are based on the collision investigation protocol used by the Australian National accident research center at Monash University Accident Research Center
Keep collecting real deep researchworld in-
Data on deep serious injuries since 2000.
Interviews were provided with demographic information, details of cycling, a description of the crash, events leading to the crash, and information after the crash.
The injury data is obtained from the review of the medical records and/or Trauma Registry (
Hospital in Alfred)
Including the type of injury and the severity of the injury (
Use the abbreviated injury scale)
Glasgow Coma Score, surgical report, CT scan report and care precautions-if available.
Significant environmental features, including the number, speed and composition of traffic at the site, type of road, speed limit for posting, number of lanes, sidewalks and verges, traffic control, visual impairment, adjacent land use, associated activity levels and patterns, andstreet parking.
The agreement currently implemented in Melbourne has been approved by the hospital ethics committee and the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Curtin (Perth)
It has also been recognized by human research ethics.
Research on natural riding (non-
Cyclists crash)
Natural data provides an objective record of the views of cyclists riding on the road. these data can be analyzed in various ways, including :(1)
Exposed and/or as a cyclist (2)
Determine the factors that lead to the crash.
Some researchers have extensive experience in conducting natural bicycle research, especially in determining factors that contribute to cycling --
Driver collision and proximity
Collision event.
24, 32, 33 in the proposed study this will be the first time that a naturalist approach will be used to investigate urban road design in bicycle accidents by comparing urban forms collected at accident sites and urban forms collected at non-accident sites role
People riding bicycles (
Exposure Data Selected by using video footage-
Natural data). Non-
Injured cyclists will be recruited nearby
Road collision location identified from the car
Research on deep bicycle collision
When cyclists stop at the crossroads, they are intercepted, and trained researchers identify themselves, describe the purpose of the study, and seek the participation and contact details of the bike (
Mobile phone number or email address, for example).
All riders who provide contact information will be tracked within 24 hours of roadside interception.
Each intercepted cyclist who agrees to participate in the study must not be injured in a bicycle accident 36 months prior to recruitment, which requires hospital treatment.
This requirement ensures that participants in the naturalist study are not involved in bicycle accidents, resulting in hospital stay during recruitment
Research on deep bicycle collision
Participants must be willing to have their bikes fitted with two cameras to record them at 7-day period (see figure 2).
A camera will be installed on the handlebar (forward view)
The second one will be installed under the seat (rear view).
The camera includes a global positioning system (GPS)
Data Recorder for recording bicycle movements (
Such as: latitude and longitude, speed, acceleration, braking)
All trips.
The camera includes lithium-ion rechargeable batteries that allow cyclists to record about 2 hours of video and GPS data without interruption.
Download figureOpen in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 2 camera installed before and after bicyle.
Everyone who rides a bicycle is in 7-
The day cycle will be analyzed.
The exposure data of bicycle enthusiasts will be layered according to the type of road they Travel (
Arteries, sub-arteries, collectors and local roads)
And randomly selected Road sites (
Defined as road 45 m)
Frequency matching will be performed according to the proportion of crashes (from the in-
Deep collision research)
It happened on various roads.
Once Road sites have been identified from video clips, the following data will be obtained from access to road sites or from records obtained from research partner organizations, namely volumes, speed and composition of on-site traffic, speed limit posted, number of lanes, sidewalks and verges, traffic control, visual impairment, use of adjacent land, level and pattern of related activities and on-street parking.
Sample size, data management and analysis in a total of 295 riders recruited by bike crash learning and Melbourne\'s Alfred-Alfred Study.
Using the same protocol in two studies in Melbourne, 100 injured cyclists from Perth (Perth Study)
Will be recruited.
A total of 395 non-
Injured by cycling (
295 from Melbourne and 100 from Perth)
Two cameras will be used to test their bicycles.
As mentioned above, randomly selected road locations will be determined from the footage taken in the study of naturalism.
Data from a total of 295 highway sites in Melbourne and 100 sites in Perth will be used to simulate changes in road sites (urban form)
Between sites where a collision occurred and no collision occurred.
The suggested sample size will ensure that we have sufficient capacity (0. 8)
Detection difference (
Proportional difference = 0. 15)
In the urban environment between where the accident occurred and where it did not occur.
Considering partial matching, the standard conditional multivariate logistic regression will be used in the data analysis (eg, road types)
Websites that have occurred and have not collapsed.
34 prototype development of safety cycle road design a kinetic energy management model using the results of early research (KEMM)
Will be applied when designing enhanced urban prototypes.
KEMM35 provides a systematic way to analyze the various elements and stages of a cyclist\'s collision: from the cyclist\'s exposure to the collision;
In the case of exposure, cyclists are at risk of a crash;
Cyclists will be exposed to potential kinetic energy and pass the resulting level of kinetic energy to cyclists, resulting in crash damage.
As mentioned above, collision and natural data will provide the basis for KEMM analysis, and the results of the study will provide a system
A wide compilation of factors leading to unacceptable levels of risk for cyclists.
The damage results after the collision of bicycles and motor vehicles are basically determined by the laws of physics and speed, the difference in quality, the trajectory of the vehicle, the separation of bicycles and cycles, and the angle of collision.
In order to develop urban road designs that meet basic safety principles and human injury thresholds, we will develop a safety system framework for cyclists that can improve the risk factors of injury to cyclists
The 36, 37 safety system framework regards the road system as a whole, identifies the specific needs of various road users, and creates conditions physically to minimize the consequences of fatal and serious injuries.
The framework combines the knowledge identified in physics theory and early stage of study, in particular the human limitations and the causes of collisions caused by existing design defects, this will enable us to identify unrecognized thresholds that will be violated if security systems are to be maintained.
Consultations will be held with designers, engineers and delegates of the cycling group to develop cycling
Security System Framework.
Urban/road designs developed in accordance with the above principles may create a strong environment that minimizes the risk of cycling.
Discussions will begin in the workshop environment using safer road design templates.
The template is based on the method of successful application in the development of safety junction design.
38 workshops will be organized with bike safety and road management-related stakeholders, road design experts, urban design and creative design, and partner organizations, given the findings highlighted in the previous research phase, identify potential design ideas.
The resulting design will be shortlisted according to the criteria defined by the workshop participants.
Standards can include aspects such as the level of safety that may arise from the design, objective and subjective safety, compatibility with existing road designs, ease of implementation and cost, impact on the environment and traffic capacity/operations.
The expected design can include elements such as the improved demarcation of the driving path of bicycles and vehicles, audible-
Tactile device, road mark, space separation of traffic flow (
Physical barrier using line marking or low profile)
And speed management.
The selected design will be made as a feature layout plan.
Through further stakeholder consultation
The table discussion will be taken to the final stage, a featured design that is considered to have the greatest potential.
The selected design will be developed and then tried using two simulators (
Cycling and driving).
Simulation evaluation (
Simulated riding and driving
Simulation Technology is an excellent and mature method for testing system.
Based on counter measurements and will be used to test the performance of drivers and cyclists of different prototypes (road designs).
The simulation of the prototype will be tested twice: once in the bike simulator with the aim-
As part of this study, it was built for the second time in the advanced driving simulator at the Monash University Accident Research Center.
These simulation technologies will provide a platform for evaluating selected performance measures, including (
But not limited)
Bicycle/vehicle-
Based on measurements, including mean and SD of lateral positions, mean velocity and velocity distribution close to critical events and reaction time.
Bicycle/driver eye movements assessed using the FaceLab system, including object detection time and fixed duration, provide a more theoretical hypothesis test related to the attention strategies adopted by road users.
Subjective data collected through postride/postdrive interviews on bicycle/driver perception of road design and understanding of required behavior.
Five simulation studies will be conducted, each consisting of 25 participants from Victoria and Western Australia.
Found this sample size enough to detect changes caused by road infrastructure
Operation-based in the simulator. 39 Between-
The theme design will be primarily used to provide a more representative behavioral response in cases involving rare events, since the benefits of exposing participants to a large number of rare events in a short period of time are questionable.
39 the crash location determined in Phase 1 will be used to identify the location type (
Intersection/middle block)
The location of the accident and the situation of the accident.
Recent research has shown that cycling has great health benefits.
For example, a 6-
An annual study conducted after 67 Chinese women in Shanghai found that women walking and cycling for various reasons had a significantly lower mortality rate than women without walking and cycling.
Similarly, in Denmark, a country that prioritizes cycling and cycling to work, the death rate of staff has dropped by 40%. age men.
These are overwhelming findings, however, that cannot be translated directly into Australia (
Or many other highly developed countries)
As there is no priority to provide a safe bike infrastructure.
Interestingly, China has been providing designated bike lanes for cyclists for many years.
However, these devices are often removed due to rapid maneuvering.
41 as mentioned earlier, research into bicycle safety in Australia focuses on behavior, 24-26 years, with limited focus on the impact of urban traffic environment on bicycle safety.
Compared with many European countries, Australian land use planning has more in common with the United States.
This is an important issue to consider when adapting international examples to Australia\'s road environment.
As a result, the proposed study will further understand the transport system in Australia and the improvements needed to create a safer bike environment.
This study is essential if cyclists are to be safe and to achieve the cycling engagement goals set by the current federal government policy.
Australia, like other highly developed countries, faces major environmental challenges in which high levels of car travel play an important role.
By identifying and proposing a safer environment for cyclists, this study will identify solutions that support this alternative mode of transport and help reduce traffic
Strengthening sustainable economic and social ties.
Practical application knowledge translation is an important part of this study.
The representative of the cycling partner advocacy group participated in the research management committee and will help to communicate the findings to the cycling community and the public.
We are also committed to strengthening the link between research and policy and promoting evidenceInformed Policy.
This will be achieved by establishing a working group on translation (TTG)
This will facilitate interaction and debate between stakeholders and researchers.
TTG will facilitate the interaction with the results of the study.
The group will include members of the research management team and key government decision makers responsible for transport planning and road network responsibility.
The TTG representative will be an integral part of the simulation results and will serve as a facilitator for incorporating the findings into the actual infrastructure project.
Practical application knowledge translation is an important part of this study.
The representative of the cycling partner advocacy group participated in the research management committee and will help to communicate the findings to the cycling community and the public.
We are also committed to strengthening the link between research and policy and promoting evidenceInformed Policy.
This will be achieved by establishing a working group on translation (TTG)
This will facilitate interaction and debate between stakeholders and researchers.
TTG will facilitate the interaction with the results of the study.
The group will include members of the research management team and key government decision makers responsible for transport planning and road network responsibility.
The TTG representative will be an integral part of the simulation results and will serve as a facilitator for incorporating the findings into the actual infrastructure project.
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The openurlcrosspubmedweb contributors of the science site MS, MJ, JO, LM, BG and GR contribute to the concept and design of the protocol.
The final version was reviewed and approved by all authors.
The work was supported by the Australian Research Council grant no. : lp30100380.
The National Commission for Health and Medical Research Fellowship supports MS and BG.
Obtain patient consent.
Australian Research Council, Ethics Committee for Human Studies, Monash University.
Uncommissioned source and peer review;
External peer review.
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