How Solar Energy Becomes Electricity

by:CTECHi     2020-01-31
With so much sunshine reaching our planet every day, it seems incredible that humans have not yet found a truly effective way to take advantage of all the free solar energy and use it for daily needs
Great progress has been made over the past 60 years, and researchers are looking for more efficient and cost-effective ways to use solar power, but before every family can use it, there is still a lot to do.
Every ecologist dreams that one day, we will completely abandon the carbon fuels and nuclear power plants that produce extremely dangerous and polluting waste, and completely switch to recyclable energy.

PV was originally developed in 1939, but was not used until the age of 1950.In 1954, Bell Labs powered the transistor radio using the first photovoltaic silicon solar cell.Soon after the photovoltaic cells were used as a satellite power supply.

A thin semiconductor sandwich with a layer of highly pure silicon.The silicon sandwich presents excess electrons on one side and insufficient electrons on the other.
When the sandwich is exposed to the Sun, the photons in the sun hit off some extra electrons that migrate to the deficit side.This creates a voltage difference that is only 0 in each silicon battery.5 volt.
There are metal contacts on both sides of the wafer.When connecting an external circuit, electrons prefer to go a long way around the metal instead of crossing through silicon to produce a complete circuit and current.As an electronic pump, photovoltaic cells have no storage capacity.
The size of the current is determined by the number of electrons hit by the Sun photon.
To make efficient solar cells, we try to maximize absorption and minimize reflection and compounding to maximize conduction.
There are practical limits on size, efficiency, and how much sunlight the cells can withstand.
Photovoltaic modules-What Is It?

It consists of many photovoltaic cells connected in series to generate higher voltage.The industry standard is usually a module consisting of 36 batteries.Recent standard production includes 72-cell modules.
Tempered glass (or other transparent material) is used on the front of the module and waterproof material is used on the back.
Photovoltaic array-What Is It?

Consists of many photovoltaic modules connected together to provide a higher voltage.
An array can be as small as two modules connected together, or large enough to cover an acre.

Friendly environment.Solar energy is a clean energy source: it does not involve emissions of greenhouse gases.
Solar energy is a renewable and inexhaustible resource.
Because photovoltaic systems do not rely on exposed wires, residential photovoltaic systems are more reliable than utilities, especially in bad weather.
The PV module does not have moving parts and therefore does not deteriorate due to movement.
The degradation of photovoltaic systems is very, very slow;They live for decades.In fact, the factory warranty is usually 25 years.
No fuel is needed.
They are maintained free of charge and sometimes only need to be rinsed.
From families in remote areas to satellites, photovoltaic systems are a great way to power equipment in remote areas.

The initial cost of installing a solar system is quite high.
The efficiency of solar panels is related to the amount of sun received.
Although the battery can solve this problem, no energy will be generated at night.
Geographically, it can\'t be installed anywhere.The efficiency of the solar system is related to latitude and weather in the area.

The PV module will not convert 100% of the solar energy into electricity.Average about 12-Conversion efficiency 14%.In the laboratory, the conversion rate has reached more than 20% by using experimental cells made of esoteric and rare elements, but these cells are too expensive to commercialize.
The first photovoltaic system is very expensive with an efficiency of about 6%.The cost of PV has fallen sharply and can now be affordable.Single TodayCrystal silicon module display efficiency improved by 17-19%, and moreAccording to data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the current record of junction photovoltaic cells exceeds 40%.
The modules installed under the average US conditions meet the energy return in three to four years.With more solar-grade silicon, energy returns are expected to be faster in the future.


Convert the solar energy into direct current and send it to the inverter.

Provide the solar energy from the panel to the battery without overcharging the battery.

(Optional) store solar energy to provide power when the solar energy produced is insufficient: peak use, night, cloudy days.

Turn DC into AC current for home use.

Net metering is a special agreement between utilities and customers that allows small renewable energy systems to be connected to the grid.
When the energy generated by the net metering customer exceeds the required energy, the meter runs in reverse and generates credit.
Net metering customers charge only the electricity they consume from the power service provider, or if their energy-Power generation systems consume more power than they do, and they may be credited or paid to the excess power of the grid.
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